Friday, June 29, 2007
Grave of Raphael Semmes, Commanding Officer, CSS Alabama
Grave of Confederate General Braxton Bragg, Magnolia Cemetery, Mobile AL.
Tuesday, June 26, 2007
Union: Colonel Theodore H. Barrett, commanding a Union force consisting of the 62nd United States Colored Troops and the 2nd Texas (US) Cavalry.
Confederate: Colonel John S. Ford, commanding a small force of Confederate troops.
Prelude: The Civil War is coming to an end. There are no more major Confederate armies in the field. The Government of the Confederate States of America has been disbanded, its leaders scattered in an attempt to escape or already prisoners of the Federals. Despite the lack of any major organized armies, there were many smaller units scattered around the country, still putting up a fight, but for the most part their commanders were either surrendering or just simply disbanding their units.
One small operation was in progress at the southernmost part of Texas. The purpose was not only to eliminate any further Confederate resistance, but it was also necessary to re-establish Federal control over the border region. Mexico was in the midst of its own civil war, with the deposed government of Benito Juarez fighting the forces of Emperor Maximillian and his army, consisting mainly of French troops. So, it became important that US President Andrew Johnson and the Federal Government secured the border as soon as possible.
The area involved in the operation is at the extreme southern tip of Texas. The only major town in the area is Brownsville. Across the Rio Grande River are the towns of Matamoros, across from Brownsville, and Bagdad, a port at the mouth of the Rio Grande where Confederate blockade runners could land their cargoes without Union interference. There was a Federal presence in the area, a small garrison at Brazos Santiago that was all that remained of an 1863-1864 operation that sent Union forces up the Rio Grande as far as Laredo, where they were turned back. Eventually, the Confederates reclaimed all the territory except for Brazos Santiago.
The 62nd USCT was previously called the 1st Missouri Colored Infantry. Their previous service was garrison duty at Baton Rouge, building fortifications. The only combat service so far was a one-day patrol which did not turn up anything. It must have been little relief when orders came in to relocate to Brazos Santiago. The attitude amongst the African-American soldiers was that it was believed that they were only good for garrison duty, a belief not unfounded. Still, they followed orders and marched to New Orleans, where they embarked.
In October of 1864, the unit arrived at Brazos Santiago, joining the 1000 man garrison, consisting of Illinois troops, the 81st USCT (Engineers), and the 2nd TX (US) Cavalry. This force was soon joined by the 34th Indiana, allowing the Illinois troops to be assigned to Major General E.R.S. Canby’s expedition against Mobile, AL. There was an attempt to assign the 62nd USCT to that operation, but was unsuccessful. In the end, the garrison commander, Brigadier General William Pile, departed, leaving Colonel Robert Jones in command. In April of 1865 Jones himself left, leaving Barrett in command.
The situation in South Texas was this: things were quiet in the area. The Confederate military presence was mostly small units. It was so quiet that there was even an attempt to negotiate with the Confederates for their surrender, which was rejected. The time came for a direct approach; with the war winding down (Barrett would have received dispatches about the Confederate surrender) it seemed the right time to sweep up the Rio Grande Valley.
Barrett decided to assemble a force for that sweep, with the aim to capture food, lumber, and horses. The 2nd TX (US) Cavalry did not have any horses. They would also engage any Confederate units that they found. Barrett decided to take the cavalry, as well as the 62nd USCT, about 250 men total. The plan was to march south from their encampment at the north end of Brazos Santiago, board a ferry that would take them to Point Isabel (now Port Isabel), and then head for Brownsville. The formation would be placed under the command of Lieutenant Colonel David Branson.
11 May, 1865: Early Morning: The Union formation departs their base and heads for the ferry landing, where id was discovered that the ferry’s steam engine had broken down. Barrett ordered Branson to return to camp and prepare to march to a crossing at Boca Chica.
That evening, the Federals reached Boca Chica and began to cross, despite approaching storms. By 9:30 p.m., the force was across and began marching southwest to the Rio Grande. There was intelligence that there was a small Confederate camp alongside the river at White’s Ranch.
12 May, 1865: 2:00 a.m.: As the Federals approached White’s Ranch, they split their column with the intent to encircle the camp and surprise the Confederates come dawn. As the campsite was reached, it was discovered that the place was deserted. It seemed that the Confederates moved up river. The next logical spot was Palmito Ranch. With the approaching dawn, Branson ordered his men to take cover in nearby thickets.
5:00 a.m.: Branson receives word that Mexicans on the south bank of the river has spotted then and were alerting the Confederates in Brownsville. Branson decided to press on to Palmito Ranch.
12:00 noon: Branson’s troops reach Palmito Ranch, finding the place deserted. He soon realizes he is in a pickle; his force is deep in enemy territory, the Confederates know of his presence, and even the Imperial Mexican Army was around, threatening to make trouble. Branson decides to secure the area, capturing three prisoners and a few supplies.
3:00 p.m.: A formation of Confederate troops were approaching from Brownsville. Branson decides to pull back toward White’s Ranch. This was accomplished amid skirmishing.
13 May, 1865: 8:00 a.m.: Arriving at White’s Ranch, Branson finds Barrett and about 200 troops from the 34th IN. Barrett assumes command of the combined force and orders an advance on Palmito Ranch.
10:00 a.m.: After a break for rest and food, the Union force sets off. The Confederates who had been skirmishing with Branson’s troops sent word to Brownsville. When the message reached there, the Confederate commander wanted to surrender, but Ford, the second-in-command decided otherwise.
11:00 a.m.: Ford, 200 mounted troops, and six cannon, depart Brownsville and head for Palmito Ranch.
Meanwhile, Barrett’s troops reach Palmito Ranch and proceeded to burn the barracks there. At the same time, Branson’s troops engage Confederate skirmishers, who were there to keep an eye on things until Ford arrived.
Barrett had originally placed his troops in line of battle formation along the road to Brownsville; the 34th IN on the road itself, the 62nd USCT to their right, and the 2nd TX (US) Cavalry between the two. They soon meet their first serious resistance from skirmishers near Palmito Hill.
2:00 p.m.: Barrett issues an order which turned out to be a grave mistake. He orders all his troops to encamp on Palmito Hill, with only five soldiers detailed to keep watch. Barrett’s intention was to rest for the night, then march to Point Isabel and back to Brazos Santiago. However, that was not to be.
3:00 p.m.: Ford arrives with his force and began deploying them. He found a rise west of Palmito Hill where the cannon could be deployed in support of one detachment. A smaller detachment was sent with two cannon as a flanking element to the north and east of the Federal position. The last two cannon was his reserve. With the skirmishers joining him, Ford had 360 total men at his disposal.
4:00 p.m.: Ford orders his troops to attack.
Barrett was caught totally by surprise.
The Federals respond by sending out two companies of the 34th IN as a skirmish line. The 2nd TX (US) covered the right, while the 62nd USCT covered the rear. This was a good defensive line except for one thing, the Federals did not bring any artillery with them, and they were starting to get pounded by the Confederate guns. Barrett orders a retreat.
The infantry began pulling back, with the cavalry keeping up a screen on their left. The Indiana troops went over Palmito Hill and headed for the road east, the African-American troops covered the right, keeping put a screen in order to protect that flank.
As Ford advanced, the 34th IN skirmishers were overrun and captured. The same happened to the 2nd TX (US), who were captured in the brush near Palmito Ranch.
It was noted that the Indiana troops were confused during the retreat, ending up exposed to Confederate artillery, and ran through the USCT formation, who were marching in good order.
Soon, the force was reformed; the 34th IN covered the supply wagons while the 62nd USCT maintained a rear-guard action. It was one such action that prevented Ford from cutting off the Federal retreat.
It took three hours for the force to reach Boca Chica, during which the 34th IN lost both of their flags.
14 May, 1865: Barrett’s troops complete their crossing back to Brazos Santiago, with the African-Americans “marching as from dress parade, twenty-eight inch step, music playing.” The Federals were safe; Ford’s pursuit had broken down several miles back, effectively ending the battle.
Branson was reported to say at the end of the operation, “That winds up the war.”
In a report dated 21 May, 1865, Barrett reported his losses as one killed, nine wounded, and 101 captured. The prisoners were brought to Brownsville and paroled.
By the end of May, all Confederate activity along the Rio Grande had ceased.
How ironic that the last battle of the Civil War was a Confederate victory.
Monday, June 25, 2007
The Fall of Mobile, AL
Union: Major General E.R.S. Canby, commanding Union forces in the Mobile Bay area.
Confederate: Lieutenant General Richard Taylor, commanding the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, and Major General Dabney Maury, commander of Confederate forces at Mobile.
Prelude: Even though the Federals had captured the entrance of Mobile Bay in a combined arms assault on 5 August, 1864, the upper bay, as well as the city of Mobile itself was still in Confederate hands. Even though the use of the port was limited, the river, rail and road networks were still useful. Taylor saw this usefulness as he allocated scarce resources to the defense of Mobile.
Canby had a lot of resources at his disposal, but not enough to make a grand assault on Mobile. He was, however, able to conduct raids that hampered the Confederate’s ability to defend the entire area. He held the strategic forts guarding the entrance of the bay, Fort Gaines and Fort Morgan, but capturing Mobile would tie up Confederate troops, since there were plans to launch an offensive into Alabama from Tennessee.
9 September, 1864: A Federal force of 250, supported by naval gunboats, attack and destroy the salt works on the Bon Secours River, northwest of Gulf Shores.
11 September, 1864: The same force destroyed Smith’s Mill, near the town of Marlow. On the way out, a force of 70 Confederates blocked the river with pine trees. After a short fight, the Federals were able to punch through and leave the area.
Maury proceeded to fortify the area by building fortifications at the towns of Blakeley and Spanish Fort, as well as sending heavy guns to Forts Tracy and Huger, overlooking the Apalachee River near Spanish Fort. He also received all the troops that Taylor could spare, resulting in a force on only 10,000, including cadets from a local military academy.
Canby received orders to capture Mobile, and then advance on the manufacturing center of Selma and the state capital of Montgomery, where the Confederacy was born. To reinforce him, Major General Frederick Steele was sent from Pensacola, FL with 13,000 troops. This gave Canby a force of 45,000 in which to take the offensive. In February and into March, 1865, he concentrated his troops at Forts Gaines and Morgan and prepared to execute his orders.
18 March, 1865: Canby sends 1700 of his forces up the west shore of Mobile Bay. This attracts the Confederate’s attention, but the actual attack will be from the east.
16 March, 1865: XIII Corps, commanded by Major General Gordon Granger, marched east from Fort Morgan and turned north near Gulf Shores.
19 March, 1865: Canby had also sent XVI Corps, commanded by Major General A.J. Smith across the bay to Fish River Landing, near Marlow. They reach Fish River Landing on the 20th and dug in to await XIII Corps.
On the same day, Steele’s troops began marching from Fort Barrancas, near Pensacola, heading north into Alabama to Pollard.
25 March, 1865: Both XVI and XIII Corps had met up at Marlow. Canby orders the march north to continue. They reach Deer Park later that day and entrench. Over five miles to the north was a Confederate line commanded by Liddell at D’Olive Creek.
26 March, 1865: Canby sent XVI Corps around the Confederate’s left flank, forcing Liddell to pull his troops to Spanish Fort. Canby then crossed D’Olive Creek.
On the same day, Steele’s troops reach Pollard. There they turned west, along the Mobile and Great Northern Railroad, to Canoe.
27 March, 1865: Battle of Spanish Fort: Confederate troops under Brigadier General Randall Gibson held a line of fortifications east of an old fort that dated from the time the area was under Spanish control. Canby advanced to within one-half mile of the entrenchments and ordered his troops to dig in themselves.
3:00 a.m.: Gibson sends out skirmishers and surprisingly drove back the Union pickets. Canby was able to get a good assessment of the Confederate defenses and orders a general advance. This results in Gibson’s troops coming under siege as their lines were surrounded.
Steele’s advance was delayed by bad roads, but that movement continued. They went to the northwest from Pollard to the Weatherford Plantation, where they turned southwest to Stockton. All the while, Steele’s cavalry had several skirmishes with scattered Confederate units.
30 March, 1865: Canby had placed several batteries on the north shore of Minette Bay, north of his lines. Not only did they cover his right flank, but fire from those guns took Forts Huger and Tracey out of the fight, further deteriorating the situation for Gibson.
31 March, 1865: Steele’s troops reach Stockton. There, they secure supplies; the Federal troops were on half rations until that point. Canby also helped by sending several wagons of supplies.
1 April, 1865: Steele approached Blakeley and engages the Confederate pickets, driving then into their defensive works.
2 April, 1865: The Confederate defenders at Blakeley launch a probe at Steele, which was turned back. Steele decided to entrench his lines. Help comes in the form of two of Canby’s divisions, sent from Spanish Fort.
Meanwhile, Canby was getting hit by Liddell, with one resulting in losing 23 Union troops as prisoners. Still, Canby advanced his lines forward.
8 April, 1865: Gibson orders an artillery bombardment with 46 guns. Canby responds with 90 guns of his own, rendering them ineffective. During the bombardment, the 8th Iowa moved around the Confederate left, causing the defensive line to collapse. Gibson counterattacks but fails to push the Federals back. That night, he orders his garrison to pull back to Fort Huger.
With Gibson’s withdrawal, Spanish Fort fell to Canby, who immediately orders his army to march to Blakeley. The full weight of his army could then be brought to bear on Liddell.
9 April, 1865: On the same day that General Robert E. Lee was surrendering the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House, VA, the last major battle of the Civil War began.
Battle of Blakeley: Canby arranged his forces thus; Steele to the north of his center, Granger and Smith to the south. Since 6 April, the Confederates tried to push away Steele’s troops, but to no avail. Now with the arrival of Canby, it was only a matter of time.
Liddell arranged his lines in a series of redoubts that held batteries of artillery. Canby threw up earthworks of his own. Still, it needed a frontal assault to push Liddell back.
5:25 p.m.: The Union assault begins with an assault on Redoubt #9, on the Confederate’s right flank. 20 minutes later, the Union troops assault Redoubt #4, under support by the 15th Massachusetts Battery. Led by the 83rd Ohio, under murderous Confederate fire, the Federals were able to push through a line of obstacles, and then a line of Confederate rifle pits. The defenders abandoned the pits and ran past the redoubt. The artillery in the redoubt resumed fire, but could not be depressed enough to stop the Federals. Redoubt #4 soon fell and the Confederate line was cracked.
5:30 p.m.: The Confederate left flank, consisting of Redoubts #1 and #2, were hit by the Division of Brigadier General John Hawkins. This division consisted of three brigades of African-American troops, had been engaging both ground and naval forces throughout the afternoon. As the rest of the Union line was going in, Hawkins’ men rushed forward through obstacles, including sub-terra torpedoes (land mines), and defensive fire and took the redoubts.
With the Confederate defensive line broken, and the naval support driven back, it turned out to every man for himself as Liddell tried to fall back across the river. Only 200 Confederates made it out.
10 April, 1865: Canby sent two divisions south to Starke’s Landing, where they boarded transports and sailed across Mobile Bay to Dog River Point on 12 April. From there, they began marching north towards Mobile itself.
Meanwhile, Maury was preparing to evacuate his garrison.
11 April, 1865: Forts Tracey and Huger opened up with an artillery barrage in order to cover the Confederate evacuation. After the last infantry departed, the cannon were spiked and the magazines were blown up.
12 April, 1865: Mobile Mayor R. H. Slough met Federal troops on the Bay Shell Road, south of the city and formally surrendered. This as the last Confederate defensive positions was abandoned.
Maury took his command north, burning railroad bridges as he went. Canby ordered a pursuit, hoping to prevent the retreating Confederates from linking up with other units. Around this time, the news of Lee’s surrender would have reached both sides. Despite this, there was still some skirmishing, proving to the Union that the war was not over yet.
30 April, 1865: Having also heard of the surrender of General Joseph Johnston’s army in North Carolina, Taylor approaches Canby about a cease fire. One was agreed but that was disallowed by Canby’s superiors. Taylor was told that he had 48 hours to surrender before the fighting was to resume.
4 May, 1865: Taylor formally surrenders his forces at Citronelle, AL, the last major force in the Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana.
This was just the latest Confederate army to surrender, there will be one more, General Edmund Kirby Smith’s army in the Trans-Mississippi, who surrender on 2 June, 1865, bringing a formal end of hostilities, with the exception of a few more skirmishes.
Friday, June 08, 2007
Article of Secession: Tennessee
Declaration of Independence and Ordinance dissolving the Federal relations between the State of Tennessee and the United States of America.
1st. We. the people of the State of Tennessee, waiving an expression of opinion as to the abstract doctrine of secession, but asserting the right as a free and independent people to alter, reform, or abolish our form of Government in such manner as we think proper, do ordain and declare that all the laws and ordinances by which the State of Tennessee became a member of the Federal Union of the United States of America, are hereby abrogated and annulled, and that all obligations on put part be withdrawn therefrom; and we do hereby resume all the rights, functions and powers which by any of said ordinances were conveyed to the Government of the United States, and absolve ourselves from all the obligations, restraints, and duties incurred thereto; and do hereby henceforth become a free, sovereign, and independent State.
2nd. We furthermore declare and ordain, that Article 10, Sections 1 and 2 of the Constitution of the State of Tennessee, which requires members of the General Assembly, and all officers, civil and military, to take an oath to support the Constitution of the United States, be and the same are hereby abrogated and annulled, and all parts of the Constitution of the State of Tennessee, making citizenship of the United States a qualification for office, and recognizing the Constitution of the United States as the supreme law of this State, are in like manner abrogated and annulled.
3rd. We furthermore ordain and declare that all rights acquired and vested under the Constitution of the United States, or under any act of Congress passed in pursuance thereof, or under any laws of this State, and not incompatible with this ordinance, shall remain in force and have the same effect as if this ordinance had not been passed.
Article of Secession: North Carolina
We, the people of the State of North Carolina, in Convention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the ordinance adopted by the State of North Carolina, in the Convention of 1789, whereby the Constitution of the United States was ratified and adopted, and also all acts and parts of acts of the General assembly, ratifying and adopting amendments to said Constitution are hereby repealed, rescinded, and abrogated.
We do further declare and ordain that the Union now subsisting between the State of North Carolina and the other States, under the title of the United States of America, is hereby dissolved, and that the State of North Carolina is in the full possession and exercise of all those rights of sovereignty which belong and appertain to a free and independent State.
Done at Raleigh, 20th day of May, in the year of our Lord, 1861.
Article of Secession: Arkansas
Whereas, in addition to the well-founded causes of complaint set forth by this Convention, in resolutions adopted on the 11th March, A.D. 1861, against the sectional party now in power in Washington City, headed by Abraham Lincoln , he has, in the face or resolutions passed by this Convention, pledging the State of Arkansas to resist to the last extremity any attempt on the part of such power to coerce any State that seceded from the old Union, proclaimed to the world that war should be waged against such States until they should be compelled to submit to their rule, and large forces to accomplish this have by this same power been called out and are now being marshaled to carry out this inhuman design, and to longer submit to such rule or remain in the old Union on the United States would be disgraceful and ruinous to the State of Arkansas.
Therefore, we, the people of the State of Arkansas, in Convention assembled, do hereby declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the “ordinance and acceptance of compact” passed and approved by the General assembly of the State of Arkansas, on the 18th day of October, A.D. 1836, whereby it was said General Assembly ordained that, by virtue of the authority vested in said General Assembly, by the provisions of the ordinance adopted by the convention of delegates assembled at Little Rock, for the purpose of forming a constitution and system of government for said State, the propositions set forth in “an act supplementary to an act entitled an act for the admission of the State of Arkansas into the Union, and to provide for the due execution of the laws of the United States within the same, and for other purposes, were freely accepted, ratified, and irrevocably confirmed articles of compact and union between the State of Arkansas and the United States,” and all other laws and every other law and ordinance, whereby the State of Arkansas became a member of the Federal Union, be, and the same are hereby in all respects and for every purpose herewith consistent repealed, abrogated, and fully set aside; and the Union now subsisting between the State of Arkansas and the other States, under the name of the United States of America, is hereby forever dissolved.
And we do further hereby declare and ordain, that the State of Arkansas hereby resumes to herself all rights and powers heretofore delegated to the Government of the United States of America---that her citizens are absolved from allegiance to said Government of the United States, and that she is in full possession and exercise of all the rights and sovereignty which appertain to a free and independent State.
We do further ordain and declare that all rights acquired and vested under the Constitution of the United States of America, or of any act or acts of Congress, or treaty, or under any law of this State, and not incompatible with this ordinance, shall remain in full force and effect, in nowise altered or impaired, and have the same effect as if this ordinance had not been passed.
Article of Secession: Virginia
An ordinance to repeal the ratification of the Constitution of the United States of America, by the State of Virginia, and to resume all the rights and powers granted under said Constitution.
The people of Virginia, in the ratification of the Constitution of the United States of America, adopted by them in Convention, on the 25th day of June, in the year of our lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight, having declared the that the powers granted under the said Constitution were derived from the people of the United States, and might be resumed whensoever the same should be perverted to their injury and oppression, and the Federal Government having perverted said powers, not only to the injury of the people of Virginia, but to the oppression of the Southern slaveholding States.
Now, therefore, we, the people of Virginia, do declare and ordain, that the Ordinance adopted by the people of this State in Convention on the twenty-fifth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight, whereby the Constitution of the United States of America was ratified, and all acts of the General Assembly of this State ratifying or adopting amendments to said Constitution are hereby repealed and abrogated; that the union between the State of Virginia and the other States under the Constitution aforesaid is hereby dissolved, and that the State of Virginia is in the full possession of all the rights of sovereignty which belong and appertain to a free and independent State. And they do further declare that said Constitution is no longer binding on any of the citizens of this State.
This Ordinance shall take effect and be an act of this day, when ratified by a majority of the votes of the people of this State, cast at a poll to be taken thereon on the fourth Thursday in May next, in pursuance of a schedule hereafter to be enacted.
Done in Convention in the city of Richmond, on the seventeenth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and in the eighty-fifth year of the commonwealth of Virginia.
A true copy.
JON. L. EUBANK
Secretary of Convention
Article of Secession: Texas
An Ordinance to dissolve the Union between the State of Texas and other States united with her under the compact of Government styled “The Constitution of the United States of America”
SEC 1: Whereas the Federal Government has failed to accomplish the purposes of the compact of union between these States, in giving protection either to the persons of our people upon an exposed frontier, or to the property of our citizens; and whereas the action of the Northern States is violative of the compact between the States and the guarantees of the Constitution; and whereas the recent developments in Federal affairs make it evident that the power of the Federal Government is sought to be made a weapon with which to strike down the interests and property of the people of Texas and her sister slaveholding States, instead of permitting it to be, as was intended---our shield against outrage and aggression; therefore “We, the people of the State of Texas, by delegates in the Convention assembled, do declare and ordain that the ordinance adopted by out Convention of delegates on the (4th) day of July, A.D. 1845, and afterwards ratified by us, under which the Republic of Texas was admitted into the Union with other States, and became a party to the compact styled ‘The Constitution of the United States of America’ be, and is hereby repealed and annulled.
That all the powers which, by the said compact, were delegated by Texas to the Federal Government are resumed. That Texas is of right absolved from all restraints and obligations incurred by said compact, and is a sovereign State, and that her citizens and people are absolved from all allegiance to the United States or the Government thereof.
SEC 2: This ordinance shall be submitted to the people of Texas for their ratification or rejection, by the qualified voters, on the 23rd day of February, 1861; and unless rejected by a majority of the votes cast, shall take effect and be in force on or after the 2nd day of March, A.D. 1861. Provided that in the representative district of El Paso said election may be held on the 18th of February, 1861.
Done by the people of the State of Texas, in convention assembled, at Austin, the 1st day of February, A.D. 1861.
Article of Secession: Louisiana
An Ordinance to dissolve the Union between the State of Louisiana and other States united with her under the compact of Government entitled “The Constitution of the United States of America”
We, the people of the State of Louisiana, in Convention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the Ordinance passed by us in Convention on the 22nd day of November, in the year 1811, whereby the Constitution of the United States of America, and the amendments of said Constitution, were adopted, and all laws and ordinances by which the State of Louisiana became a member of the Federal Union, be, and the same are hereby, repealed and abrogated; and that the union now subsisting between Louisiana and other States, under the name of the “United States of America,” is hereby dissolved.
We do further declare and ordain, that the State of Louisiana hereby resumes all rights and powers heretofore delegated to the Government of the United States of America; that her citizens are absolved from all allegiance to said Government; and that she is in full possession and exercise of all those rights of sovereignty which appertain to a free and independent State.
We do further declare and ordain, that all rights acquired and vested under the Constitution of the United States, or any act of Congress or treaty, or under any law of this State and not incompatible with this ordinance, shall remain in force, and have the same effect as if this ordinance had not been passed.
The undersigned hereby certifies that the above ordinance is a true copy of the original ordinance adopted this day by the Convention of the State of Louisiana.
Given under my hand and the great seal of Louisiana, at Baton Rouge, this 26th day of January, in the year of our Lord, 1861.
A. MOUTON; Pres. of the Convention.
J. Thomas Wheat, Secretary of the Convention.
Article of Secession: Georgia
An Ordinance to dissolve the Union between the State of Georgia and other States united with her under the compact of Government entitled “The Constitution of the United States”
We the people of the State of Georgia, in Convention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the ordinance adopted by the people of Georgia in Convention in the year 1788, whereby the Constitution of the United States was assented to, ratified, and adopted, and also all acts and parts of acts of the General Assembly ratifying and adopting the amendments to the said Constitution, are hereby repealed, rescinded, and abrogated; and we do further declare and ordain, that the Union now subsisting between the State of Georgia and other States, under the name of the United states of America, is hereby dissolved; and that the State of Georgia is in full possession and exercise of all those rights of sovereignty which belong and appertain to a free and independent State.
Article of Secession: Alabama
An Ordinance to dissolve the Union between the State of Alabama and other States united under the compact styled “The Constitution of the United States of America”
Whereas, the election of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin to the offices of President and Vice-President of the United States of America, by a sectional party, avowedly hostile to the domestic institutions and to the peace and security of the people of the State of Alabama, preceded by many and dangerous infractions of the Constitution of the United States by many of the States and people of the Northern section, is a political wrong of so insulting and menacing a character as to justify the people of Alabama in the adoption of prompt and decided measures for their future peace and security:
Therefore, Be it declared and ordained by the people of the State of Alabama in convention assembled, That the State of Alabama now withdraws , and is hereby withdrawn from the Union known as “the United States of America” and henceforth ceases to be one of said United States ad is, and right ought to be, a sovereign and independent State.
SEC 2: Be it further declared and ordained by the people of the State of Alabama in convention assembled, That all of the powers over the territory of said State, and over the people thereof, heretofore delegated to the Government of the United States of America, be and they are hereby withdrawn from said Government, and are hereby resumed and vested in the people of the State of Alabama.
And as it is the desire and purpose of the State of Alabama to meet the slaveholding States of the South who may approve such purpose, in order to frame a provisional as well as a permanent government upon the principles of the Constitution of the United States.
Be it resolved by the people of Alabama in convention assembled, That the people of the States of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Missouri, be, and are hereby, invited to meet the people of the State of Alabama, by there delegates, in convention, on the 4th of February, A.D. 1861, for the purpose of consulting with each other as to the most effectual mode of securing concerted and harmonious action in whatever measures may be deemed most desirable for our common peace and security.
And be it further resolved, That the president of this Convention be, and is hereby, instructed to transmit forthwith a copy of the forgoing preamble, ordinance, and resolutions, to the Governors of the several States named in said resolutions.
Done by the people of the State of Alabama in Convention assembled, at Montgomery, on this, the 11th day of January, A.D. 1861
WM.M. BROOKS, President of the Convention.
Article of Secession: Misissippi
The people of Mississippi, in convention assembled, do ordain and declare, and it is hereby ordained and declared, as follows, to wit;
SEC 1: That all the laws and ordinances by which the said State of Mississippi became a member of the Federal Union of the United States of America be, and the same are hereby repealed, and that all obligations on the part of the said State, or the people thereof, be withdrawn, and that the said State does hereby resume all the rights, functions, and powers which by any of the said laws and ordinances were conveyed to the Government of the United States, and is absolved from all the obligations, restraints, and duties incurred to the said Federal Union, and shall henceforth be a free, sovereign, and independent State.
SEC 2: That so much of the first section of the seventh article of the Constitution of this State, as requires members of the Legislature and all officers, both legislative and judicial, to take an oath to support the Constitution on the United States, be, and the same is hereby abrogated and annulled.
SEC 3: That all rights acquired and vested under the Constitution of the United States, or under any act of Congress passed in pursuance thereof, or any law of this State, and not incompatible with this ordinance, shall remain in force, and have the same effect as if the ordinance had not been passed.
SEC 4: That the people of the State of Mississippi, hereby consent to form a Federal Union with such of the States as have seceded or may secede from the Union of the United States of America, upon the basis of the present Constitution of the United States, except such parts thereof as embrace other portions than such seceded States
Article of Secession: Florida
Whereas, all hope pf preserving the union upon terms consistent with the safety and honor of the slaveholding States, has been fully dissipated by the recent indications of the strength of the anti-slavery sentiment pf the free States; therefore,
Be it enacted by the people of Florida, in convention assembled, That it is the right of the several States of the Union, at such time, and for such cause as in the opinion of the people of such States acting in their sovereign capacity, may be just and proper, to withdraw from the Union, and, in the opinion of this Convention, the existing causes are such as to compel Florida to proceed to exercise this right.
We, the people of the State of Florida, in convention assembled, do solemnly ordain, publish, and declare that the State of Florida hereby withdraws herself from the Confederacy of States existing under the name of The United States of America, and from the existing Government of the said States; and that all political connections between her and the Government of said States ought to be, and the same is hereby totally annulled, and said Union of States dissolved; the State of Florida is hereby declared a sovereign and independent nation; and that all ordinances heretofore adopted, in as so far as they create or recognize said Union, are rescinded; and all laws, or parts of laws, in force in this State, in so far as they recognize or assent to said Union be and they are hereby repealed.
Article of Secession: South Carolina
We the people of South Carolina, in convention assembled, to declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the ordinance adopted by us in convention on the twenty third day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty eight, whereby the Constitution of the United States of America was ratified, and also all acts and parts of acts of the General Assembly of this State, ratifying amendments of the said Constitution, are hereby repealed; and the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States, under the name "United States of America" is hereby dissolved. Done at Charleston the twentieth day of December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty.
Subscribe to Posts [Atom]