Friday, August 25, 2006
An Amateur’s Look at the American Civil War: June
1861: Confederate cavalry defeat a Federal force near Fairfax Court House, VA.
1862: Confederate General Lee assumes command of the Richmond, VA defenses.
Confederate troops renew the assault on Union lines at Fair Oaks, VA bur are repulsed with heavy losses.
Ohio Representative Samuel Sullivan Cox gives a speech on the House floor in opposition to any emancipation measures.
1863: There is an impasse between the CSA and the United Kingdom over the ironclad vessels which were supposed to be completed on this date. UK government is considering seizing the vessels.
1864: Union cavalry seize Altoona Pass, GA, opening a supply line all the way to Chattanooga, TN.
Union General Samuel Sturgis leads forces from Memphis, TN in pursuit of Confederate General Forrest.
Union General Sheridan’s forces at Old Cold Harbor, VA repulse a Confederate attempt to retake the crossroads.
Edmonia G. Highgate, an African-American teacher, begins teaching freed slaves around Norfolk, VA.
1861: 3000 Union troops under General McClellan move toward Philippi, VA.
1862: Confederate General Jackson’s troops clash with Union General McDowell’s forces near Strasburg, VA as the Confederates continue their retreat.
1863: Confederate Army of Northern Virginia receives orders to begin marching north.
1864: The two opposing armies in Virginia have entrenched themselves from Bethesda Church to the Chickahominy River, about seven miles.
Union General Sherman begins shifting his advance to the northeast of Atlanta, GA.
1865: Confederate General Kirby Smith surrenders all troops west of the Mississippi River. Some troops refuse to surrender and head for Mexico.
UK Government withdraws belligerent rights from the CSA.
1861: USS Joseph is captured by CSS Savannah, but in turned is captured by USS Perry.
Union troops in Western Virginia surprise Confederate troops near Philippi, VA. The resulting pursuit became known as the “Philippi Races.”
Stephen Douglas, the Northern Democrat candidate in the 1860 Presidential Election, and US President Lincoln’s opponent in a famous series of debates, dies.
1862: Skirmishing at Legare’s Point, near Charleston, SC.
Union forces at Corinth, MS begin to advance on Memphis, TN.
1863: Union General Burnside orders the Chicago Times newspaper shut down for its Democratic stance.
Confederate troops, numbering 70,000, depart Fredericksburg, VA and begin moving north. The movement is observed by Union balloon observers but General Hooker is unsure what this means.
1864: Battle of Cold Harbor, VA. Union commander: General Ulysses Grant. Confederate commander: General Robert E. Lee. A dawn attack on Confederate entrenchments results in the bloodiest hour of the war, with 7000 dead and injured within 60 minutes. Grant will later consider this one of two charges he would regret. There will be skirmishing and artillery engagements until June 12.
Union Sergeant John Ransom writes about seeing African-American soldiers of the 54th MA arriving at Camp Sumter (Andersonville, GA).
1865: Confederate forces on the Red River, LA surrender.
1861: The action at Philippi, VA has instilled an over confidence in the Union forces in the belief that Confederate troops have no stomach for a fight.
1862: Confederates evacuate Ft Pillow, TN, opening the way for Union forces to reach Memphis, TN.
Union Army of the Potomac begins movement toward Richmond.
Confederate General Jackson’s forces continue to withdraw in the Shenandoah Valley, VA.
Skirmishes at Jasper, TN and Blackland, MS.
1863: US President Lincoln orders the Chicago Times reopened, countermanding Union General Burnside’s closure order of June 1.
Joint US Army/Navy operation destroys a foundry at Walterton, VA where cannon shells were being cast.
Confederate Generals Longstreet’s and Ewell’s corps advances north as General Hill’s corps remain at Fredericksburg, VA. General Stuart’s cavalry mass around Brandy Station, VA.
Situation is bleak for the Vicksburg, MS defenders as Confederate General Pendleton orders provisions seized and rationing is imposed.
Nadine Turchin, wife of 19th IL Colonel John Turchin, writes a letter decrying the role of women in 19th Century America. (John Turchin was actually Ivan Turchinoff, a Russian immigrant. His wife’s name was Nadia. She actually led a charge at one time.)
1864: There is a truce at Cold Harbor, VA so that the dead of both armies can be buried.
Confederate General Joe Johnston withdraws to a line covering three mountains in Georgia, Lost, Pine, and Brush, all north of Atlanta.
Federal forces pursue Confederate Generals Morgan and Forrest throughout Tennessee and Kentucky.
1861: A shipment of munitions that was slated to go south was seized at the DuPont works in Delaware.
1862: Union troops enter Ft Pillow, TN, finding the place deserted.
Small engagement at Tranter’s Creek, NC.
1863: Confederate General Lee is concentrating his army near Culpepper, VA while General Stuart holds a Grand Review of his cavalry at Brandy Station, VA.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle leaves Shelbyville, TN for Atlanta, GA.
1864: Union General Sherman’s forces leave Dallas, GA and head for Altoona Pass.
Battle of Piedmont, VA. Union commander: General David Hunter. Confederate commander: General William Jones. Union forces attack Confederates north of Piedmont, turning a flank and killing Jones in the process. Confederates flee from the area. Union victory.
Confederate General Breckenridge is ordered to rejoin the Army of Northern Virginia. This leaves a small force in the Shenandoah Valley to counter any Union thrusts.
1861: It was decided that the Federal Government would fund war expenditures as the states’ fulfill their quota of volunteers.
1862: Battle of Memphis, TN. Union commander: Commodore Charles Davis. Confederate commander: Captain James Montgomery. In a full scale river battle between ships, Union naval forces destroy a Confederate flotilla tasked with protecting Memphis. By mid-day the city surrenders to Union forces, opening the Mississippi River as far as Vicksburg, MS.
In a minor skirmish near Harrisonburg, VA, Confederate Colonel Turner Ashby, General Jackson’s cavalry commander is killed.
1863: Union Colonel Herman Lieb encounters Confederates near Richmond, LA. After beating them away, the Union African Brigade heads for Millikens Bend, LA
There is contention between Union General Hooker and US President Lincoln over what to do as Confederate General Lee’s army moves north. Hooker wants to invade Virginia and hit Richmond while Lincoln wants Washington, DC protected.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle travels from Atlanta to Augusta, GA.
1864: Union troops seize Lake Village, AR.
Union troops seize Staunton, VA.
Skirmishing at Raccoon and Big Shanty (Kennesaw), GA as Union General Sherman continues to shift his army around the Confederates.
1861: Union General McClellan’s victories in Western Virginia give hope to the anti-secession faction there.
1862: In New Orleans, LA, Union garrison commander General Butler orders William Munford hanged for cutting down a US flag from the Mint building.
Federal advance units are within sight of Richmond, VA.
1863: Confederate forces under General Henry McCulloch attack Union Colonel Lieb’s troops at Millikens Bend, LA. Confederates are almost victorious when two Union gunboats arrive, who’s fire help drive the Confederates off.
CS President Davis’ plantation, Brierfield, in Mississippi is burned by Union troops.
Mary Ann Loughborough, a Vicksburg, MS resident, writes about conditions in the city, including the constant shelling that forced most of the residents into caves.
After touring the Powder Works, Lt Col Arthur Freemantle leaves Augusta, GA for Charleston, SC.
1864: Union troops from Lake Village, AR, join Union river units at Columbia, AR.
National Union Convention meets in Baltimore, MD to choose their nominee for President. This group consists of Republicans and Democrats who support the war effort.
Union General Sheridan is sent to the Shenandoah Valley, VA to assist General Hunter.
Skirmish at Ripley, MS.
1861: All Virginia State forces are transferred to the Confederate government. Its commander, Robert E. Lee, becomes an advisor to CS President Davis.
US Sanitary Commission set up in Washington, DC. This group would render great assistance to the troops and is an ancestor to today’s support and morale agencies for the military.
Tennessee voters approve secession.
1862: Battle of Cross Keys, VA. Union commanders: Generals John Fremont, John Shields, and Irwin McDowell. Confederate commander: General Thomas Jackson. Union forces launch a two-pronged (Fremont and Shields) attack that was uncoordinated. What didn’t help was McDowell basically stayed out of the fight. Fremont’s troops attack Confederate General Ewell’s forces, but are partially repulsed. Confederate victory.
1863: Confederate General Stuart holds another cavalry review, this time for General Lee.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle arrives at Charleston, SC but fails to meet Confederate General Beauregard.
1864: Confederate Partisan John Hunt Morgan capturing the Union garrison at Mount Sterling, KY. He steals $18,000 in the process.
US President Lincoln receives the Union Party nomination for the 1864 Presidential Election. Chooses Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, a Democrat, as his running mate.
Confederate General Imboden’s troops are pushed back, by Union General Hunter’s forces, to Waynesboro, VA.
Imperial (French) troops enter Mexico City with Emperor Maximillian as Mexican President Benito Juarez vows to fight the takeover.
1865: Union VI Corps has its own review at Washington, DC.
1861: Union troops under General Butler begin movement toward a Confederate outpost at Little Bethel Church, VA.
1862: Battle of Port Republic, VA. Union commander: General John Fremont. Confederate commander: General Thomas Jackson. Having dealt with Shields, Jackson turns his attention to Fremont’s column. He pulls General Ewell’s forces back, and then launches a massive attack that breaks the Union line and forces them out of the Shenandoah Valley. The Shenandoah Valley Campaign is effectively over at this point with a victory for the Confederates.
1863: Battle of Brandy Station. Union commander: General Alfred Pleasonton. Confederate commander: General J.E.B. Stuart. Pleasanton launched a surprise while Stuart was holding a review. The fight lasts all day in what would become the largest cavalry battle of the war. Pleasonton withdraws from the battle, giving Stuart the victory but also embarrassed that he was surprised. At this point, Federal cavalry begin to gain in efficiency.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle tours Charleston, SC, viewing the forts there.
1864: Union General Sherman finds Confederate General Johnston entrenched near Marietta, GA. Performs a series of maneuvers that forces the Confederates to withdraw.
Union General Butler attacks Petersburg, VA but is repulsed.
1861: USS Merrimack, recovered at Gosport Navy Yard, VA is rechristened CSS Virginia.
The first serious battle of the Civil War takes place at Big Bethel, VA with a repulse of Union troops.
1862: At this point in time, the Federal Army of the Potomac is within four miles of Richmond, VA but is split into two groups. Confederate General Lee plans to take advantage of this by weakening the Richmond defenses and go on the offensive.
Skirmish at James Island, SC.
1863: Confederate Army of Virginia’s II Corps (General Ewell) begins it advance up the Shenandoah Valley, VA.
Union ship Maple Leaf was forced ashore at Cape Henry, VA by Confederate prisoners who then escaped.
1864: Battle of Brice’s Cross Roads, TN. Union commander: General Samuel Sturgis. Confederate commander: General Nathan Forrest. A Confederate force of 2000 forces back a Union force of 8000. Confederate victory.
Confederate Government authorizes military service for 15 to 50 year old males.
1865: CSS Shenandoah, its crew unaware that the war is over, attacks US whaling ships off Japan.
1861: Pro-Unionists meeting in Wheeling, VA to discuss seceding from seceded Virginia.
Skirmish at Romney, VA.
There is a meeting between Union General Lyon, commander of the US Army Department of the West, Missouri Governor Claiborne Jackson, and Missouri Militia commander General Sterling Price. Both Jackson and Price are pro-Confederate and they demand that the state be declared neutral and for US troops to leave the state. Lyon, armed with the intelligence that Jackson and Price have raised an army in order to take over Missouri and turn it over to the Confederacy, refuses. Meanwhile, troops from Texas under Ben McCulloch have crossed into Missouri and are headed to Springfield.
Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, writes a letter about meeting her son, who had joined a Massachusetts regiment.
1862: Minor action at Monterey, KY.
Atlanta newspaper prints an article about large families sending all of their able-body sons into the CS Army.
1863: Despite his exile, Clement Vallandingham is nominated for Ohio governor on the Peace Democrat ticket.
The arrival of two 10-inch Columbiad cannon at the Vicksburg, MS, adds to the daily bombardment.
US President Lincoln signs the Draft Act into law.
1864: At Cynthiana, KY, Confederate forces under General John Hunt Morgan capture the Union garrison and the reinforcements sent to help them.
CSS Alabama puts in to port at Cherbourg, France. Word of this reaches Union Captain John Winslow, commanding USS Kearsarge, presently in Dover, England.
Union forces capture Lexington, KY.
Battle of Trevilian Station, VA. Union commander: General Philip Sheridan. Confederate commanders: Generals Wade Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee. Union cavalry forces a wedge between the two Confederate cavalry formations, driving both back. Battle will conclude on June 12. During the battle, Sheridan learns that General Hunter, who he was supposed to meet, is not where he was expected, but is at Alexandria, VA burning down the Virginia Military Institute.
CS War Department clerk John B. Jones writes that new potatoes are selling for $160 a bushel.
1861: Missouri Governor Jackson calls for 50,000 volunteers to fight the Union “invasion.” Union forces under General Sigel move toward Springfield, MO to block Confederate troops under General McCulloch.
1862: Confederate General Jackson’s army crosses the South Fork of the Shenandoah River, VA, so they can rest before joining the Army of Northern Virginia. There is no threat to Richmond, VA from the north for the time being, so the focus can be placed on Union General McClellan and the Army of the Potomac.
Confederate General Stuart takes a cavalry force on a four-day mission that will encircle the Union Army of the Potomac.
Skirmish at Village Creek, AR.
1863: Union General Hooker receives intelligence that Confederate troops are on the move.
Rumors of a Confederate invasion cause panic in Pennsylvania as Governor Curtin calls out the state militia, who do not respond very well. A request to New York for help results in 26 militia regiments being loaned to Pennsylvania.
Confederate General Ewell’s corps has moved through Chester Gap, VA undetected by Union cavalry.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle finally meets Confederate General Beauregard. That evening he heard an artillery exchange.
1864: Additional Union reinforcements attack Confederate General Morgan’s forces at Cynthiana, KY capturing or killing most of them. Morgan escapes.
Union General Grant orders his troops to move toward Petersburg, VA while leaving one corps in place at Cold Harbor, VA to deceive Lee.
Battle of Trevilian Station ends with Union General Sheridan pulling back. Technically a Confederate victory.
1861: Union General Lyon takes 1500 men and head for Jefferson City, MO. Upon hearing of this, the pro-Confederate state government flees with local troops.
1862: Skirmish at James Island, SC.
1863: Confederate General Ewell attacks the Federal Garrison at Winchester, VA
American Missionary Association is one of several philanthropic organizations devoted to educating freed slaves.
1864: Union forces under General Sturgis reenter Tennessee after defeat at Battle of Brice’s Cross Roads.
USS Kearsarge leaves Dover, England for Cherbourg, France to face CSS Alabama.
Confederate General Lee pulls back toward Richmond, VA fearing a direct Union attack.
Union II Corps (General Hancock) reaches the James River at Wilcox Landing, VA.
Confederate General Leonidas Polk killed by a cannon ball near Marietta, GA
1861: Confederates abandon Harper’s Ferry, VA in the face of two Union forces.
1862: Confederate General Stuart’s troopers attack Union supply points and a train, creating confusion throughout the Union operation area.
1863: Union General Banks fails in another attack on Port Hudson, LA and is forced to keep up a siege.
Confederate General Ewell’s forces capture West Fort at Winchester, VA, surrounding the town and forcing Union troops under General Robert Milroy to withdraw in the night.
Confederate General Longstreet’s crosses the Potomac River at Sharpsburg, MD. General Lee is with him.
1864: Union transports in position to ferry II Corps across the James River, VA.
USS Kearsarge arrives off Cherbourg, France.
1861: Confederate forces are gathering strength in western Missouri.
At Los Angeles, CA a dinner party is given foe a small group of officers who have resigned their commissions and plan on joining the CS Army. The hosts are Captain and Mrs. Winfield S. Hancock (Captain Hancock will be a Union corps commander). The guests include Colonel Albert Johnston (who will die at Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing, TN)), Major Lewis Armistead, and Captain Richard Garnett (who will both lead brigades against Hancock at Gettysburg, PA and die in the process).
1862: Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart receives a hero’s welcome in Richmond, VA for his ride which encircled the area where Union General McClellan’s army is positioned. The tally of the raid was 165 prisoners and 300 horses. This boosts Southern morale but also serves to alert McClellan to his army’s weaknesses. Confederate General Lee orders Jackson to join his troops, while he sends 10,000 toward the Shenandoah Valley in order to trick the Federals into thinking that Jackson is being reinforced.
1863: CSS Atlanta sets out from Wilmington, NC.
Confederate General Ewell has his troops make a flanking maneuver that results in capturing 2400 Union troops at Winchester, VA.
Union troops attack the Vicksburg, MS defenses with no results.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle departs Charleston, SC and is delayed at Florence, SC.
1864: Arlington House, Confederate General Lee’s home in Alexandria, VA, is designated a military cemetery. This is now known as Arlington National Cemetery.
Union troops cross the James River on pontoon bridges at Weyanoke, VA.
Battle of Petersburg, VA. Union commander: General W.F. Smith. Confederate commander: General Pierre Beauregard. Union forces at the head of General Grant’s advance reach Petersburg, only to find Confederates forces waiting for them. The first attack drives the Confederates from their trenches, forcing them to maintain a defensive action while General Lee rushes the rest of his army to the city.
US House of Representatives votes in favor of a resolution abolishing slavery but fails to reach the 2/3 majority required.
Union Sergeant John Ransom writes that his own condition is deteriorating, suffering from scurvy. Also reports that lice are a serious problem. Daily life at Camp Sumter (Andersonville, GA) now consists of dealing with lice, bad water, poor rations, a soaring death rate, oppressive summer weather, and Raiders plundering the camp daily.
1861: Union General Lyon decides to attack Confederate forces in Missouri before they can concentrate.
1862: Union General Henry Benham launched an attack on Confederate positions at Secessionville, SC against orders and is repulsed with heavy losses.
1863: The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia continues its northward movement toward Pennsylvania.
Union General Grant’s strength has reached 77,000 which is over double the 30,000 Confederates holding Vicksburg, MS.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle arrives in Wilmington, NC and spends the day in the only active port in the Confederacy.
1864: 14,000 Confederate troops are massed to defend Petersburg, VA but the Army of the Potomac, minus VI Corps (General Wright), has arrived. Confederate General Lee still believes that the main Union thrust will be north of the James River, even though Union forces are south of the river.
Union forces briefly take Bermuda Hundred, VA but lose it to Confederates under General Pickett that evening.
1861: Thaddeus Lowe demonstrates his balloon as an observation and artillery fire direction platform.
Confederate cavalry come to within sight of Washington DC. On the way back, that same troop will ambush a Federal train at Vienna, VA.
Union General Lyon advances on Boonville, MO and draws the Confederates into the range of his own artillery. This forces the Confederates to withdraw with some losses.
1862: Confederate General Beauregard takes sick leave, replaced by General Braxton Bragg.
A Union assault on Confederate positions at St Charles, AR, results in Federal control of the White River. During this battle, the highest naval combat losses in the war occurred when the USS Mound City suffered a boiler explosion, killing over 100.
Union General John Pope assumes command of the newly created Army of Virginia, composed of Union armies that fought in the Shenandoah Valley.
Confederate General Jackson begins moving his army south to join General Lee’s army, ending the Shenandoah Valley Campaign.
Skirmishes at Smithville, AR, and Warrensburg, MO.
Confederate General Order 17 issued. This regulated “independent” commands.
1863: CSS Atlanta attacks two Union warships at Wassaw Sound, GA, but runs aground and eventually surrenders. (This vessel will be renamed USS Atlanta.)
Union cavalry under General Judson Kilpatrick attack Confederate cavalry under Colonel Thomas Munford at Aldie, VA. Confederates are forced back. Colonel Munford then regroups and attacks Union cavalry under Colonel Alfred Duffie, routing them.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle arrives in Petersburg, VA and catches another train, arriving in Richmond, VA later that morning. He meets CS Secretary of State Benjamin and CS President Davis.
1864: Union General Hunter’s forces reach Lynchburg, VA, only to be blocked by Confederate forces under General Ewell.
Confederate General Beauregard launches an attack on Union forces at Petersburg, VA and discovers that the main Union force is in front of him. That information is passed on to General Lee, who orders the corps of Generals A.P. Hill and R. H. Anderson to reinforce Beauregard.
1861: Engagement between Union and Confederate forces at Camp Cole, MO.
1862: US President Lincoln writes General McClellan, urging him to attack. McClellan believes he is outnumbered but in truth the Union forces outnumber Confederate forces.
Skirmishing on the Williamsburg Road, VA.
1863: Union General Grant relieves General McClernand after a message is published questioning the bravery of some units.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle meets with CS Secretary of War Seddon and is given letters and a pass to go to Confederate General Lee's army, at this time heading north towards Pennsylvania.
1864: Battle of Petersburg ends in a stalemate. Union General Grant now falls on the same tactics that brought him victory at Vicksburg. The Siege of Petersburg has begun.
Confederate General Joe Johnston moves into prepared positions around Kennesaw Mountain, GA.
Union General Hunter is forced to pull his troops back into West Virginia, leaving the Shenandoah Valley in Confederate hands.
1861: Francis H. Pierpont named provisional governor over the breakaway northwestern counties of Virginia.
1862: US President Lincoln begins to focus the end of slavery as the main war aim as he announces his intention to outlaw slavery in all states currently in rebellion.
1863: Confederate General Stuart’s cavalry are forced back at Middleburg, VA by Union cavalry under General Gregg. Continues to cover Blue Ridge mountain passes.
Confederate Army of Northern Virginia still advances northward as the Union Army of the Potomac waits to see which way Lee will go.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle tours Confederate vessels at Drewry's Bluff, VA.
1864: Battle of Cherbourg, France. Union commander: Captain John Winslow aboard USS Kearsarge. Confederate commander: Captain Raphael Semmes aboard CSS Alabama. Kearsarge is posted outside French territorial waters, effectively trapping the Alabama in port. Semmes decides to go out and force an engagement. The two ships meet in international waters and circle each other for over an hour, exchanging broadsides. Because of old ammunition aboard the Alabama and defensive chains hanging on the sides of the Kearsarge, it was a matter of time before the Alabama was finally holed and sunk. Semmes and 13 others escape with the help of an English nobleman. Union victory.
Mary Walker, a Union surgeon, receives press backing for her fight for official status while also being critized for wearing trousers, even though they are under her skirts.
1861: Efforts are underway to concentrate Confederate forces in the south of Missouri.
1862: Union General Williams heads out of Baton Rouge, LA and is headed for Vicksburg, MS.
1863: West Virginia is admitted into the union as a state.
Battle of Lafourche Crossing, LA. Union commander: Colonel Albert Stickney. Confederate commander: Colonel James Major. An attempt to dislodge Union forces from Port Hudson by causing havoc in the Union rear results in an engagement late in the afternoon on the 20th. Two attacks one on the 20th and another on the 21st are both driven back. Union victory.
Baltimore citizens begin to construct field fortifications around the city in case the invading Confederates head their way.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle departs Richmond for Culpepper, VA.
1864: Union General Sherman extends his lines in order to sever Confederate supply lines near Kennesaw Mountain, GA.
Entrenching continues at Petersburg, VA.
Union forces bombard Ft Sumter, SC.
1861: Union forces under General Sturgis are stopped at the Osage River, MO as retreating Confederates burn the bridge across the swollen river.
1862: Skirmish at Battle Creek, TN.
1863: The first units of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia are across the Potomac River and into Maryland.
Union cavalry attacks Confederate troopers at Middleburg and Upperville, VA driving back Confederate General Stuart, but to stronger positions as Ashby’s Gap.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle crosses into the Shenandoah Valley, VA.
1864: Union troops attempt to cut the Weldon Railroad, south of Petersburg, VA.
US President Lincoln visits the newly formed lines at Petersburg, VA.
Union General Birney replaces General Hancock as commander of II Corps.
1861: Missouri governor Jackson flees Boonville and heads south to join other Confederate forces.
1862: US president Lincoln meets with now retired General Winfield Scott for advice on running the war.
Skirmish at Algiers, LA.
Fannie Christian, a Virginia resident, writes CS Secretary of War Randolph asking that her husband be discharged from the army. It was refused and her husband will be killed the following year.
1863: Confederate cavalry has blocked Ashby’s and Snicker’s Gaps in Virginia. This shields General Lee’s forces from Union observation.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle reaches Berryville, VA where he meets members of Confederate General Lee's staff. He also meets Prussian Captain Scheibert, one on the foreign observers attached to the Army of Northern Virginia.
1864: Confederate General John Hood, on General Johnston’s right flank, attacks Union troops near Kennesaw Mountain, GA, but is driven back with heavy casualties.
Union General Sheridan captures 900 Confederate supply wagons.
Union cavalry under Generals James Wilson and August Kautz sever the South Side Railroad, also south of Petersburg.
Confederate troops under General A.P. Hill force back Union troops to the Jerusalem Plank Road, but this extends the Union siege line to the west.
1865: CSS Shenandoah, its crew still not knowing that the war is over, attacks a US whaling fleet in the Bering Strait. Newspapers found on one vessel tells of General Lee’s surrender, but also of CS President Davis’ intention to fight on. It is decided to seek the rest of the whaling fleet.
1861: Confederate Army of the Potomac, under General Beauregard, is deployed at Manassas Junction, VA while the Army of the Shenandoah, under General Joe Johnston, is deployed to the Shenandoah Valley, VA.
1862: Skirmish at Raytown, MO.
1863: Union General Rosecrans forces feints toward Confederate General Bragg’s left flank at Shelbyville, TN.
Confederate General Stuart receives orders to sever Union lines of communication. How it is done and in what direction is left to Stuart’s discretion. This action will cut off communication between Stuart and Lee until July 1.
1864: Union cavalry destroy 30 miles of railroad near Burke Station, VA.
Union cavalry under General Kautz skirmish with Confederates near Burkeville, VA while more Union cavalry under General Wilson cuts the Richmond and Danville Railroad.
Confederate General Hampton tries to recapture the wagons that Union General Sheridan had captured, but fails.
1865: US President Johnson orders the naval blockade of Southern ports lifted.
1861: The world’s first machine gun was demonstrated in front of US President Lincoln. Its cost and the views of senior military leaders ensure that few are produced and fewer are deployed.
Union gunboats shell Virginia artillery batteries at Mathias Point, VA.
1862: Union General McClellan receives intelligence from a Confederate deserter that General Jackson is coming to join General Lee.
Union General Williams reaches Vicksburg, MS but does not have enough troops to take the city.
Engagement at Mechanicsville, VA.
1863: Battle of Hoover’s Gap, TN. Union commander: General George Thomas. Confederate commander: General Braxton Bragg. The Union feint of the previous day masks the main attack on Bragg’s right flank. The advance continues until Confederate troops under General Alexander Stewart stops the movement. Fighting will continue until the 26th when Bragg is forced to withdraw. Union victory.
Confederate General Stuart leaves the main army with three brigades, leaving two to help screen the Confederate movement north.
Union cavalry units arrive at Shelbyville, TN. They build fires in order to convince the Confederates that the infantry has arrived.
1864: Maryland votes to abolish slavery.
Union General Sheridan is forced back at St Mary’s Church, VA.
Three Union steamers are attacked on the White River, AR. USS Queen City destroyed.
1861: Union General Patterson’s forces advance toward Winchester, VA. Most of this army is made up of three-month enlistees who are about to leave when their enlistments expire, no matter where they are at.
1862: Union General McClellan sends a corps under General Heintzelman to determine Confederate General Lee’s intentions. This force runs into Confederate troops under General Ben Huger, who stops the probe. Lee decides to go ahead and launch his planned attack. The Seven Days Battles has begun.
1863: Confederate General Stuart runs into the Union II Corps as they are marching toward Frederick, MD. It is determined that the Army of the Potomac is on the move. A message is sent to General Lee but it never arrives.
Union General Hooker is battling General Halleck and Secretary of War Stanton over reinforcements.
Confederate General Bragg’s troops remain in place at Shelbyville, TN as the Federal ruse seems to have worked.
1864: Confederate cavalry under General William H.F. Lee prevent Union cavalry from destroying the Staunton River Bridge.
A tunnel is started from the Union trenches surrounding Petersburg, VA. This tunnel will eventually be dug under the Confederate lines, filled with explosives, and detonated. The tunnel is being dug by the men of the 48th Pennsylvania, who are mostly coal miners.
1861: Skirmish at Patterson Creek (Kelley’s Island), VA.
1862: Union Admiral Farragut’s gunboats shell Vicksburg, MS.
Battle of Mechanicsville, VA. Union commander: General George McClellan. Confederate commander: General Robert E. Lee. Lee moves Longstreet’s and A.P. Hill’s troops overnight to position them to attack McClellan. Lee wants to wait until Jackson’s troops arrive, but Hill grows impatient and orders an attack. Union forces are forced into additional prepared positions while Longstreet’s troops join in the attack. The defensive line, commanded by Union General Fitz-John Porter, withstand the Confederate attack. Union victory, but McClellan orders Porter to withdraw. Lee decides to continue the advance.
1863: Confederate General Jubal Early’s division marched through Gettysburg, PA on the way to York, PA.
CS War Department clerk John B. Jones writes that the price of flour has fallen to $300 a barrel.
1864: Union General Sheridan reaches Union lines with the captured wagons.
Confederate General Early’s troops reach Staunton, VA enroute to stage a raid in the Washington, DC area in order for Union troops to be recalled from Petersburg, VA.
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes about conditions at Andersonville Prison, GA getting worse. Several hundred die a day and the dying are robbed. Rations are still cornmeal and bad bacon a day.
Union Sergeant John Ransom, either yards away or across the camp from Sneeden, figures about 100 a day are dying. He is using a cane to get around.
1861: Army and Navy costal survey experts meet in Washington, DC in order to examine problems that might be encountered during costal operations.
Federals attack Mathias Point, VA but are repulsed.
1862: Battle of Gains Mill, VA. . Union commander: General George McClellan. Confederate commander: General Robert E. Lee. Union forces are in improved positions Lee orders an attack, but is repulsed. Jackson arrives late in the day while Longstreet prepares another attack. The Union line is breached but it is too late in the day to exploit it, allowing McClellan to withdraw. Confederate victory.
Union Admiral Farragut rums his vessels past the batteries at Vicksburg, MS.
Confederate General Bragg is named as commander of the Army of the Mississippi, replacing General Beauregard.
Skirmishes at Village Creek and Waddell’s Farm, AR as well as along the Armite River, LA.
1863: Union General Hooker resigns as commander of the Army of the Potomac over General Halleck’s and Secretary Stanton’s refusal to allow troops from the Harper’s Ferry garrison. This resignation was made in anger but it was calmly accepted. General George Meade, V Corps commander, is made the new army commander (he will hold this post for the remainder of the war).
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle arrives at Confederate General Longstreet's headquarters, 10 miles inside Pennsylvania. That evening he is in Chambersburg, PA.
1864: Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, GA. Union commander: General William Sherman. Confederate commander: General Joseph Johnston. Sherman launched an attack in the belief that Johnston’s line is spread thin. Union attack is repulsed with heavy causalities. Confederate victory.
1861: New York Tribune published an article under the headline “On to Richmond” which becomes a battle cry in Washington, DC. This places pressure on the US Military to end the rebellion before the Confederates are strong enough.
1862: Union General McClellan orders a withdrawal to Harrison’s Landing on the James River. Much of the supplies at White House Landing is destroyed in order to keep it from Confederate hands.
1863: Union General Thomas moves toward Hillsboro, TN, after Confederate General Bragg’s right flank, but Bragg is headed to Tullahoma, TN. Thomas also sends General Wilder’s brigade to cut the rail lines in Bragg’s rear.
Confederate forces attack Fort Butler at Donaldsonville, LA. but are repulsed by supporting Union gunboats.
A scout named Harrison reaches Confederate General Longstreet’s headquarters with news that the Union army is on the move, following the Confederates. Among the information is the news of the change of command of the Army of the Potomac. This information is passed on to General Lee, who is dismayed that this information is not coming from General Stuart.
Lee starts to concentrate his army in Chambersburg, PA, west of Gettysburg.
Union General Meade formally assumes command of the Army of the Potomac.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle meets another foreign observer, an officer of the Austrian Army named Ross.
1864: Union cavalry reach Stony Creek Depot on the Weldon Railroad where they are attacked by Confederate cavalry under Generals William Lee and Hampton. Union forces escape during the night.
Confederate General Early’s leave Staunton, VA without needed supplies. They begin move toward Harper’s Ferry WV.
Confederate General Joe Johnston plans another defensive line, this time at the Chattahoochee River, GA.
1861: Confederate Naval Captain George Hollings seizes the steamer St Nicholas and proceeds to capture three other Union vessels.
Union General McDowell outlines his plan to seize Manassas Junction, VA.
1862: Battle of Savage Station, VA. . Union commander: General George McClellan. Confederate commander: General Robert E. Lee. After some uncertainty, Lee figures out where McClellan is heading and decides to follow. Lee sends a force under General Magruder to keep the Union forces occupied while Jackson attacks the flank. Jackson did not arrive and Magruder is repulsed. Union victory, however the retreat continues.
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes, "Our lines stood as firm as a rock, 5,000 were simultaneously pointed and discharged with a terrific crash! To this the enemy replied by double the numbers, when all in front was hid by smoke."
1863: Confederates from Arkansas, commanded by Colonel William Parsons, reach Lane Providence, LA and force the surrender of the Union garrison.
Meade plans to form a defensive line at Pipe Creek, MD, but upon hearing of Lee’s movements, begins to move his forces towards the PA line.
Union cavalry under General John Buford conducting scouting mission in the Gettysburg area.
1864: Union cavalry under Generals Wilson and Kautz reach Reams Station expecting to find it Union held. Instead they face Confederate infantry, who surrounds them. After abandoning their wagons, both Union cavalry units escape. Kurtz reaches Union lines after dark. Wilson goes southeast.
1861: CSS Sumter, under the command of Commander Raphael Semmes, breaches the Union blockade at the mouth of the Mississippi River and escapes into the Gulf of Mexico.
1862: Battle of Glendale, VA. . Union commander: General George McClellan. Confederate commander: General Robert E. Lee. Lee is trying to give McClellan a knock out blow but his commanders are delayed by various factors. When the attack finally begins, Longstreet and A.P. Hill are repulsed and Jackson falls asleep and does not order his troops in. Union victory, but McClellan orders his army to Malvern Hill, VA.
1863: Confederate General Stuart attempts to engage Union cavalry at Hannover, PA but is not only repulsed but is almost captured. He moves to the northeast, further from Lee’s army.
US Marines under General Alfred Ellet engage Confederate troops under Colonel Parsons at Goodrich’s Landing, LA forcing the Confederates back.
Union cavalry spots Confederate troops on the Cashtown Road, west of Gettysburg, PA. Decides that the main attack will come down the next day and sends a message to the nearest infantry, the Union I Corps under General John Reynolds.
US President Lincoln resists pressure to put General McClellan back in charge of the Army of the Potomac.
Confederate General Bragg’s forces are pulled back in order to defend Chattanooga, TN.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle meets Confederate General Lee.
1864: Confederate General Jubal Early opens the Second Shenandoah Valley Campaign by moving his forces to New Market, VA. This move threatens both Winchester, VA and Washington, DC.
The Fugitive Slave Act, passed in 1850 and empowering owners to catch runaways is repealed.
Union Secretary of the Treasury Salmon Chase resigns.
Union General Sylvanus Thayer, 1785
Union General Winfield Scott, 1786
Confederate General Gabriel Rains, head of the CS Torpedo Bureau, 1803
Union Major Robert Anderson, commander at Ft Sumter, SC, 1805
Union Admiral Andrew Foote, 1806
Confederate General Gideon Pillow, 1806
1st and only President of the Confederate States Jefferson Davis, 1808
Harriett Beecher Stowe, author of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”, 1811
Union Admiral David Dixon Porter, 1813
Union General Philip Kearney, 1815
Union General Regis De Trobriand, 1816
Union General Abner Doubleday, 1819
US Assistant Secretary of the Navy Gustavus Vasa Fox, 1821
Union General Samuel Sturgis, 1822
Confederate Agent in the UK James Bulloch, 1823
Confederate General William Wofford, 1823
Confederate General John Hunt Morgan, 1825
Confederate General John Bell Hood, 1831
Union spy Pauline Cushman, 1833
Union General Wesley Merritt, 1837
Union General Galusha Pennypacker, youngest to even attain General's rank (before he was 21), 1841
Union Officer and Author Ambrose Bierce, 1842
Union Colonel Arthur MacArthur, Jr., 1845 (The father of famed US General Douglas MacArthur)
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