Friday, August 25, 2006

An Amateur’s Look at the American Civil War: April

April 1

1862: Union General McClellan's headquarters now located at Ft Monroe, VA.
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes about watching some stores being unloaded at Ft Monroe, VA. "One wharf was piled with gunpowder in kegs and grape and canister. I saw a soldier rolling some of the kegs and smoking his pipe at the same time. I got off that wharf as soon as I could..." He also writes about seeing some old friends in the camp of the 40th NY.

1863: Union troops rout a Confederate cavalry unit at Ware River, VA
CSS Nashville sunk in the Savannah River, GA by a Union ironclad.
Union General Hooker requests siege equipment for the planned assault on Richmond, VA.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle, of HM Coldstream guards, arrives in the port of Bagdad, Mexico. He is on leave from the British Army and intends on touring the CSA.

1864: Richmond, VA resident Judith McGuire writes in her diary about the scarcity of food in the Confederate capital, noting that tea sold for $22 a pound, coffee for $12 a pound, and brown sugar for $10 a pound.
Union troops under General Steele moving south to join General Banks on the Red River.
CSS Albemarle is towed to Hamilton, NC.
USS Maple Leaf sunk by a torpedo (sea mine) in the St John's River, FL.
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes that his shantymate died during the night.

1865: Battle of Five Forks, VA. Union commanders: Generals Philip Sheridan and Gouverneur Warren. Confederate commanders: Generals George Pickett and Fitzhugh Lee. At the junction of Five Forks, Sheridan holds down the entrenched Confederates while Warren launches a flank attack. At the same time, Fitz Lee and Pickett are having lunch two miles away and do not hear the battle. They return to their lines in time to see them broken and the Federals advancing. A counterattack is formed and Sheridan is almost stopped. Warren arrives late, infuriating Sheridan to the point that he secures permission to relieve Warren of command. General Lee, knowing that his lines are now beyond the breaking point, orders Pickett relieved of his command. Union victory.
Union General Steele and 13,000 men arrive at Mobile, AL. Now the Federals can besiege the city in earnest.

April 2

1862: US Senate considers President Lincoln’s plan to provide Federal funding support to states that free their slaves.
Confederate General Albert S. Johnston begins moving troops from Corinth, MS to Pittsburg Landing, TN.
Skirmish at Doniphan, MO.

1863: A women’s protest over the cost on food in Richmond, VA, degenerates into a riot. It is quelled after CS President Davis threatens to have the local militia fire on them. This became known as the Bread Riots.
Union General O.O. Howard succeeds General Carl Schurz as commander of the largely German XI Corps.
Small Confederate force repulsed at Snow Hill, TN.

1864: Confederates destroy Cape Lookout Light, NC.
Minor skirmishes at Cleveland, TN, and Grossetete Bayou and Crump’s Hill, LA.

1865: Battle of Selma, AL. Union commander: Union General James Wilson. Confederate commander: General Nathan Forrest. Union forces attack in three prongs and break the Confederate line. Forrest escapes but Selma surrenders. Union victory.
Union General Grant orders a general assault against Petersburg, VA.
Confederate General A.P. Hill is killed. General Lee orders Petersburg abandoned.
CS President Davis is informed at a church service that both Petersburg and Richmond must be abandoned. During the night, Petersburg is abandoned and Lee starts moving west in order to link up with General Joe Johnston’s forces in NC.
Union forces cut Lee’s last supply line at White Oak Road.
CS War Department clerk John B. Jones writes, "It is true! The enemy have broken through our lines and attained the South Side Road. Gen. Lee has dispatched the Secretary to have everything in readiness to evacuate the city tonight."
At 11:00 p.m., the Confederate government flees Richmond.

April 3

1861: An artillery battery at Charleston, SC fires on the Federal vessel Rhoda H. Shannon.

1862: US Senate votes to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia.
Union General Irwin McDowell’s corps is ordered to remain at the Washington DC, defenses instead of joining General McClellan at Ft Monroe, VA.
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes about preparing "skeleton maps" to be used by officers as the Army of the Potomac begins marching from Ft Monroe, VA.

1863: Southern newspapers make no mention of the Bread Riots.
US President Lincoln makes a visit to the Army of the Potomac to press General Hooker to attack Confederate General Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle arrives in Brownsville, TX, where he meets with Confederate officials. He decides to stay in Matamoros, Mexico for the time being.

1864: Union General Frederick Steele moves from Arkansas to assist General Banks, brushing aside a Confederate attempt to stop him.
Confederate held Ft Sumter bombarded by Union mortars.

1865: Tuscaloosa, AL falls to Union forces.
At 8: 15 a.m. Union forces receive the surrender of Richmond, VA. The Confederate capital is now in Union hands. The first troops to enter the city are African-American soldiers under the command of General Godfrey Weitzel.
Cavalry clash between Union General George Custer and Confederate General Fitzhugh Lee at Namozine Church, VA.
Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s army heading for Amelia Court House for supplies.
CS War Department clerk John B. Jones writes about waking up to explosions in the west end of Richmond, VA. He also reports the following: 7 a.m.: government officials destroyed liquor stocks, causing a riot, 8:30 a.m.: the armory, arsenal, and related facilities are destroyed by explosions that last an hour, 10 a.m.: he reports seeing a Federal battery go by, 11 a.m.: he sees the streets filled with Union African-American troops, and at (p.m. he hears about a curfew.

April 4

1861: Virginia votes to reject secession. (Will revisit the issue later)

1862: Union troops landed at the mouth of the Mississippi River.
A canal is cut, bypassing Confederate guns at Island No. 10, MO.
Union General McClellan begins to move troops toward Yorktown, VA. The Peninsular Campaign has begun in earnest.

1863: CSS Alabama captures the merchant vessel Louisa, whose cargo of coal is seized for the Confederates own uses.
Union General Hooker orders preparations for an assault on Richmond, VA. .

1864: Union General Sheridan assumes command of cavalry units assigned to the Army of the Potomac.
US Congress passes a resolution that it will not tolerate the formation of a monarchy in Mexico. This as reports and rumors circulate that French Emperor Napoleon III intends to install the brother of the Habsburg emperor of Austria on a throne there.
George F. Davis, a resident of Cincinnati, OH writes to his Senator, John Sherman (brother of Union General William Sherman) to complain about refugees from the south flooding into his city.

1865: US President Lincoln visits Richmond, VA.

April 5

1862: At Yorktown, VA, Confederate General John Magruder holds back Union General McClellan’s army, despite the Federals having a 5 to 1 superiority.
There is skirmishing at the edge of Union lines at Pittsburg Landing, TN. Union commanders do not believe reports of a massed Confederate advance.
Military Governor of Tennessee, Andrew Johnson, suspends Nashville’s city government for not taking the oath to the Union.

1863: Yazoo Pass is formally eliminated as an option for an attack on Vicksburg, MS.
Several Confederate ships are detained at Liverpool, UK by British authorities.

1864: Confederate General Taylor masses 16000 troops in order to prevent Union General Banks from invading Texas.

1865: Confederate Army of Northern Virginia reaches Amelia Court House, VA but the promised supplies turned out to be munitions, not the badly needed food.
Confederate cavalry under General Fitzhugh Lee fighting Union forces between Amelia Court House and Jetersville, VA.
CS War Department clerk John B. Jones writes about his feeling that he will son end his diary. The CS War Department building was destroyed the day before, so he is out of a job.

April 6

1861: An envoy is sent to Governor Pickens of SC to inform him that Ft Sumter will only be repositioned, not reinforced.

1862: Battle of Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing), TN. Union commander: General Ulysses Grant. Confederate commander: General Albert S. Johnston. Day One. In the early morning hours of April 6, the Confederates launch a surprise attack on Union encampments. The Federals are pushed back until Union General Stephen Hurlbut organizes a defense in a line or trees that afterwards is named The Hornets Nest. Assisted by General Benjamin Prentiss, the Union army is given time to form up a stronger defensive line and to get General Buell’s army from the landing. Confederate General Johnston is wounded and bleeds to death. Command is passed to General Beauregard, but everything is disorganized and the attack stops. First day Confederate victory, but was not able to exploit it.

1863: A Union flotilla enters Charleston Harbor, SC, but weather conditions do not favor an attack.
US President Lincoln suggests for the first time that Confederate General Lee’s army should be the target instead of Richmond, VA.

1864: Union state government of Louisiana adopts a new constitution that involves freeing its slaves.

1865: Confederate General Longstreet attempts to breakthrough to the south, but finds the Union XXXIV Corps in his way.
Confederate cavalry secures a crossing at the Appomattox River.
Union General Sheridan cuts off and captures ¼ of Lee’s remaining forces at Saylor’s Creek, VA. Eight Confederate Generals are among the captured.

April 7

1862: Battle of Shiloh, TN. Day Two. Union General Grant, supported by Generals Buell and Lew Wallace (he wrote Ben Hur) launch a counterattack and regained all the ground lost on April 6. Confederate General Beauregard orders his army to retreat back to Corinth, MS. Battle of Shiloh ends with a Union victory, but at a cost of 24,000 killed, wounded and missing on both sides.
Federal gunboats run past Island No. 10, MO and land troops to its south.
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes about the Union forces approaching Yorktown, VA, but not receiving an order to attack. There are, according to Sneeden, 53,000 men with 42,000 ready for battle, and 13,000 Confederates opposing them. "But by McClellan's orders, no general is permitted to bring on a battle until all out forces are up. One corps alone could take the place in an hour. Disgust at the inactivity is very manifest among most officers of all grades..."

1863: Union flotilla attacks Ft Sumter, failing to reduce the fort and losing USS Keokuk in the process.

1864: Battle of Mansfield, LA. Union commander: General Nathaniel Banks. Confederate commander: General Richard Taylor. Taylor established a line near Mansfield. Banks probes but does not attack. Taylor attacks, causing Banks to withdraw, even tough Union reinforcements had arrived. Confederate victory.
Confederate General Longstreet is ordered to return to Virginia from Tennessee.
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes that a "deadline" has been placed around the prisoner's enclosure, about 30 feet in side the fence. The Confederate guards have orders to shoot anyone crossing the line. While the line was being built, some tunnels were found, causing no end to the anger amongst the Confederates.

1865: Confederate General Longstreet attempts to burn the High Bridge across the Appomattox River, but fails, allowing Union forces to capture the crossing and maintain pursuit of Lee.
Union General Grant receives a message from President Lincoln; “General Sherman says if the thing is pressed, I think Lee will surrender. Let the thing be pressed.”
Union troops repulsed at Farmville, VA.
Union General Grant sends a massage to Confederate General Lee asking him to surrender. Lee answers with a question about terms. Longstreet advises Lee to wait.
Confederate General Forrest’s cavalry skirmishes with Union forces near Stockton, AL.

April 8

1861: The Harriet Lane, with supplies for Ft Sumter, leaves New York. The message concerning the resupply is delivered to SC Governor Perkins.

1862: Union forces make an assault on Island No. 10, MO, capturing the position and forcing the Mississippi River open as far south as Memphis.

1863: Union General McClernand’s XIII Corps engage Confederates near New Carthage, LA, slowing his advance.

1864: US Senate approves the 13th Amendment, outlawing slavery.
Confederate General Taylor repulses Union General Banks at Sabine Cross Roads, near Mansfield, LA.
CS War Department clerk John B. Jones writes about paying $25 for a cord of wood.
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes about a police force, called Regulators, that is formed to keep order and to deal with the Raiders, Union prisoners who rob and kill fellow prisoners. He also writes that the daily ration is taking a toll on the prisoners, the cornmeal is ground with the cob still in it, causing intestinal distress to those who eat it.

1865: Union General Custer cuts off all routes out of Appomattox Court House, effectively surrounding Lee. There is discussion about breaking up the army in order to continue the war as an insurgency, but Lee refuses, agreeing to meet with Grant.
In Mobile, AL, Spanish Fort surrenders.

April 9

1861: Charleston, SC newspaper editorials call for war if Ft Sumter is resupplied. Confederate government urges caution.

1862: Confederate government passes Draft Law.
Skirmish at Owen’s River, CA.

1863: Union General Nathaniel Banks launches an expedition to Bayou Teche, LA.
Union troops under General McClernand strip plantation houses in order to provide bridging material for a clear route towards Vicksburg, MS from Louisiana.

1864: Battle of Pleasant Hill, LA. Union commander: General Nathaniel Banks. Confederate commander: General Richard Taylor. Confederates launch an attack against larger Union forces and manage to drive back its left flank. Taylor is driven off but Banks decides to withdraw towards Alexandria, LA.
Union General Grant issues campaign orders for the Army of the Potomac, putting Confederate General Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia in his sights.
Confederate General Forrest raids Federal communication lines in western Tennessee.
USS Minnesota is damaged by torpedo boat CSS Squib off Newport News, VA.
Union Sergeant John Ransom writes that the death rate at Camp Sumter (Andersonville, GA) is about 30 to 40 daily.

1865: Union General Ulysses Grant and Confederate General Robert E. Lee meet in the parlor of Wilmer McLean at Appomattox Court House where an agreement for the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia is signed.
At Mobile, AL, a general assault overruns the Confederate defensive lines.

April 10

1861: USS Pawnee sails from Hampton Roads, VA toward Ft Sumter.
Confederate Secretary of War Leroy Walker instructs Gen P.G.T. Beauregard to either force the surrender of Ft Sumter or its reduction by force.

1862: Union forces under Colonel Quincy Adams Gilmore attack Ft Pulaski, near Savannah, GA. The fort is taken after 30 hours.
US Congress passes joint resolution calling for the end of Slavery.
Union General W.H.L. Wallace dies of wounds suffered at the Battle of Shiloh, TN.

1863: There is an engagement between Union forces under General Gordon Granger and Confederate forces under General Earl Van Dorn near Franklin, TN. Despite Union forces being driven off by General Forrest’s cavalry, Van Dorn withdraws.
US President Lincoln reviews the Army of the Potomac in Falmouth, VA.

1864: Battle of Prairie D’Ane, AR. Union commander: General Frederick Steele. Confederate commander: General Sterling Price. Federal forces launch an attack at Moscow, AR, driving back the Confederates until late in the day. Union victory, but Steele is forced to change his line of march.
Archduke Ferdinand of Austria assumes the throne of Mexico as Maximilian I.

1865: Union General Sherman begins moving his army to the north.
Rations are distributed to the starving Confederate Army of Northern Virginia from Union stocks.
Word of the surrender has reached Washington, DC where celebrations break out. US President Lincoln delivers a speech at the White House, where he requests the song “Dixie” be played.
Pennsylvania Representative Thaddeus Stevens makes a speech at Lancaster, PA calling on harsh measures for the defeated Southern states. It seems he had not forgiven the Confederates for destroying his steel foundry during the Gettysburg Campaign in 1863.
CS War Department clerk John B. Jones writes, "It is true! Yesterday Gen Lee surrendered the 'Army of Northern Virginia'" He also expressed that if CS President Davis had stayed in Richmond, VA that he would never allowed that to happen.

April 11

1861: Union Major Robert Anderson, commander of the Ft Sumter garrison, refuses a Confederate surrender demand.

1862: Union General Henry Halleck arrives at Pittsburg Landing, TN and assumes command of Union forces in the area, supplanting General Grant.
At Newport News, VA, CSS Virginia and USS Monitor are near each other but no shot is fired.
US House of Representatives passes resolution to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia.

1863: US President Lincoln returns to Washington, not sure of General Hooker’s plans.
Confederate General Longstreet begins a siege of Suffolk, VA.

1864: Unionist government is installed in Arkansas with Dr Isaac Murphy as Governor.
CS War Department clerk John B. Jones writes that potatoes are selling for $1 a quarter, chickens for $35 a pair, and turnip greens for $4 a peck. He also mentions a neighbor who lost all of his pigeons to thieves.

1865: Last Confederate forts around Mobile Bay, AL, surrender.
In North Carolina, Union General Sherman is now aiming at Confederate General Joe Johnston’s forces near Raleigh.

April 12

1861: Seeing the situation as grave, Union Major Anderson offers to evacuate Ft Sumter on April 15, when supplies are slated to run out. The Confederate authorities demand surrender or they will open fire. Citing no instructions from Washington, Anderson refuses. He has no way of knowing that a relief fleet is approaching.
At 4:30 a.m., according to legend, Virginia secessionist Edmund Ruffin was given the honor of firing the first artillery shot at Ft Sumter. The American Civil War has begun.
Mary Chesnut writes, “…at half past four we hear the booming of the cannon. I start up---dress & rush to my sisters in misery. We go to the house top & see the shells bursting. They say our men are wasting ammunition.”
Federal troops occupy Ft Pickens, near Pensacola, FL.

1862: Confederate Captain Raphael Semmes orders CSS Sumter abandoned at Gibraltar due to boiler problems that could not be fixed.
In what became known as the Great Locomotive Chase, Union operatives under James Andrews steal a Confederate train, the General, at Big Shanty (now Kennesaw), GA. The General’s crew gives chase until they were able to commandeer another train, the Texas. The chase continues until the General runs out of fuel. The operatives are eventually captured. Andrews and seven others are hung as spies. The others are paroled after a time in prison.
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes about an observation balloon getting loose with Union General Fitz-John Porter in it. General Porter rose to 2000 feet and momentarily came under Confederate rifle fire. He manages to open the gas valve but could not close it again. He finally crashes into a tree but is not injured. It was found that a sergeant with the 50th NY Engineers smeared the ropes with acid to get back at a captain who chewed him out the day before.

1863: Union forces under General Banks reach Ft Bisland, LA. One division is sent to cut off any routes of retreat.

1864: Confederate cavalry under General Tom Greene attack Union boats near Pleasant Hill landing, AR. General Greene is killed and the cavalry is forced back.
Confederate General Forrest attacks Ft Pillow, TN. The fort is taken and 200 of 262 African-American soldiers stationed there are massacred. Word was that the massacre took place after the Union garrison surrendered.

1865: Confederate General Joe Johnston meets with CS President Davis and receives authorization to negotiate surrender.
Mobile, AL surrenders to Union forces.
Montgomery, AL falls to Union forces.
Formal surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia takes place at Appomattox Court House, VA. Confederate General Lee issues a Farewell Address. Weapons and flags are turned over to Federal authorities. The soldiers are then given parole slips and sent home. This removes a major Confederate army from the field, but there are others.
General Order No. 9, After four years of arduous service, marked by unsurpassed courage and fortitude, the Army of Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources. I need not tell the brave survivors of so many hard fought battles, who have remained steadfast to the last, that I have consented to this result from no distrust of them; but feeling that valor and devotion could accomplish nothing that would compensate for the loss that must have attended a continuance of the contest, I determined to avoid the useless sacrifice of those whose past services have endured them to their countrymen. By the terms of the agreement, officers and men can return to their homes and remain until exchanged. You will take with you the satisfaction that proceeds from the consciousness of duty faithfully performed, and I earnestly pray that a merciful God will extend to you his blessing and protection. With an unceasing admiration for your constancy and devotion to your country, and a grateful remembrance of your kind and generous consideration for myself, I bid you all an affectionate farewell. R.E. Lee
Word has reached Union General Sherman of the surrender of General Lee.

April 13

1861: After hours of bombardment with surprisingly no causalities, Union Major Anderson agrees to surrender Ft Sumter and leave on the transports that have just arrived. He asks for and receives permission to fire a 100 gun salute as the US flag is lowered. Halfway through the salute, a spark lands on a pile of powder bags, causing an explosion and killing Private Daniel Hough, the first to die in the Civil War. The salute is halted and the garrison leaves Ft Sumter.

1862: Union troops begin to force Confederates to leave New Mexico Territory.
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes on going up in a balloon and observing Confederate positions.

1863: Union forces attack Ft Bisland, LA, backed up by US Navy gunboats. The Confederate forces evacuate during the night.
Union General Burnside publishes General Order 38, allowing the death penalty for treason.

1864: The Union convoy that was attacked the previous day manages to deliver supplies to General Banks.
Columbus, KY under assault by Confederate General Forrest’s troopers.

1865: Union General Sherman enters Raleigh, NC.
Union General Kilpatrick’s cavalry reaches Durham Station, NC.

April 14

1861: Word of Ft Sumter, SC surrender reaches Washington, DC.

1862: Minor skirmish near Pollocksville, NC.
Skirmishes reported near Montavallo, Diamond Grove, and Walkersville, MO.

1863: Union General Banks’ troops enter Ft Bisland to find it deserted. Meanwhile, retreating Confederates run into the Union blocking force and is driven off, despite support from CSS Diana.

1864: US Tugboat Geranium fired by Confederates from Ft Moultrie, SC.
Confederate General Forrest assaults Paducah, KY.
Skirmishes at Bayou Saline, Dutch Mills, and White Oak Creek, AR.

1865: At Ft Sumter, SC, Union Major General Robert Anderson raises the same flag he lowered four years before.
US President Lincoln, his wife, and two guests, attend the performance of Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theatre, Washington, DC. At 10 p.m. John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate supporter, enters the Presidential Box and fires a single shot into Lincoln’s head. The President is carried across the street to a boarding house. At the same time, Union Secretary of State Seward is attacked while another assailant chickens out, sparing Vice-President Johnson.

April 15

1861: US President Lincoln issues call for 75,000 volunteers for three month service to fight the rebellion.

1862: Union 1st CA Cavalry engage Confederates near Pechacho Pass, Arizona Territory.

1863: CSS Alabama captures two Union whaling ships off Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle writes that he has met Confederate General Magruder before departing for San Antonio, TX.

1864: The Union Red River fleet is assembled at Grand Ecore, LA. They now have to contend with a lowering river level and Confederate torpedoes, one of which heavily damages USS Eastport.

1865: Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States, dies at 7:22 a.m. Union Secretary of War Stanton remarks, “Now he belongs to the Ages.” At 11:00 a.m., Vice-President Andrew Johnson is sworn in as the 17th President of the United States.

April 16

1861: The Governor of Tennessee rejects US President Lincoln’s call for troops and announces that his state is now part of the Confederacy, despite the fact that voters rejected secession. He proclaims, “Tennessee will not furnish a single man for coercion, but 50000, if necessary, for the defense of our rights, or those of our Southern brethren.”
New York Times publishes an editorial on the unity in the North as a result of the attack on Ft Sumter, SC.

1862: US President Lincoln signs a bill outlawing slavery in the District of Columbia into law.
CS President Davis approves a law making all white males between the ages of 18 and 35 liable for a military draft.
Skirmish at Lee’s Mills, VA
Skirmish at White Marsh, GA.
Skirmish at Savannah, TN.

1863: Union transport ships run the gauntlet at Vicksburg, MS. Only one vessel is sunk and the rest reaches Grand Gulf, MS.
Confederate forces seize Ft Huger, near Suffolk, VA.
Confederate General A.P. Hill abandons the siege of Washington, NC due to lack of supplies.

1864: A report is released stating that 146,634 Confederates have been captured since the war began.
Union vessel General Hunter destroyed by a Confederate torpedo on the St johns River, FL

1865: Confederate General Joe Johnston asks Union General Sherman to meet to discuss terms of surrender.
Union troops begin a dragnet, looking for the assassin of US President Lincoln.

April 17

1861: A secession convention in Virginia votes in favor of secession.

1862: Skirmish at Holly River, VA.

1863: Union Colonel Benjamin Grierson leads troops out of La Grange, TN on a mission into Mississippi. This will last 16 days and cover 600 miles.
Union forces under General Banks clash with Confederate forces under General Taylor at Vermillion Bayou, LA. Confederates forced to continue retreat.

1864: Union General Grant halts prisoner exchange program in response to Confederate refusal to treat African-American soldiers as prisoners of war.
Confederate forces under General R.F. Hoke attack the Union garrison at Plymouth, NC

1865: Union General Sherman and Confederate General Johnston meet at Durham Station, NC to discuss surrender terms.
Union forces capture West Point and Columbus, GA, destroying CSS Jackson and capturing 1200 Confederates.

April 18

1861: First Union troops reach Washington DC.
Colonel Robert E. Lee, commander of US 1st Cavalry, is offered command of the entire Union war effort. He refuses.
Union troops abandon Harpers Ferry, VA.
US Army Quartermaster General Joseph Johnston resigns his commission.

1862: Union naval forces begin bombardment of Forts Jackson and St Philip, on the Mississippi river southeast of New Orleans, LA.
A Confederate attack at Yorktown, VA is repulsed.
Falmouth, VA taken by Federal cavalry.

1863: Union General Grierson’s troops clash with Confederate patrols near New Albany, MS.
Skirmish at Fayetteville, AR.

1864: Confederate General Marmaduke’s forces attack one of Union Colonel Grierson’s foraging parties near Camden, AR
Confederate General Beauregard is relieved of command of the Charleston, SC defenses to assume command of the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia.
Federal supply column captures near Poison Springs, AR.

1865: Union General Sherman and Confederate General Johnston sign an armistice with more liberal terms than Grant gave Lee.

April 19

1861: The 6th Massachusetts infantry regiment, marching through Baltimore, MD, is attacked by a pro-Southern mob. The soldiers fire on the crowd, killing 12 civilians while losing 4.
US President Lincoln declares a blockade on the ports of seceded states. At this time the US Navy has enough ships to block one or two ports.

1862: Skirmish at South Mills, NC
Union naval assault on Ft Jackson and Ft St Philip, LA continue.

1863: Union forces attack Ft Huger, VA, capturing the Confederate garrison within. They will withdraw, with their prisoners, the next day.
Union Colonel Grierson’s cavalry engage Confederates near Pontotoc, MS.

1864: CSS Albemarle attacks Union vessels near Plymouth, NC, driving them off.

1865: Union Colonel John Sprague leaves Cairo, IL to seek Confederate General Kirby Smith to discuss surrender.
CS President Davis learns of the death of US President Lincoln while at Charlotte, NC.
The body of US President Lincoln lies in state in the Capital.
CS War Department clerk John B. Jones writes for the last time in his diary. He mentions about the death of US President Lincoln while he is waiting for permission from Federal authorities to move his family to the Eastern Shore of Virginia.

April 20

1861: US Navy personnel, while evacuating Gosport Naval Yard, set fire to USS Merrimack. Upon taking over the base, Confederate personnel succeed in raising the hulk. This hulk will eventually become CSS Virginia, an ironclad vessel.
Colonel Robert E. Lee resigns from the US Army.
An Indiana newspaper prints an editorial declaring that the “sin of Slavery” is the cause of the war and emancipation should be the main war aim.

1862: Union sailors attempt to breach an obstacle across the Mississippi River below Ft Jackson and Ft St Philip, LA
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes that on this Easter, no Easter eggs but plenty of broken shells from enemy guns.

1863: A Union flotilla consisting of four ships attack Ft Burton at Butte a la Rose, LA, forcing its surrender.
US President Lincoln announces that the breakaway counties of western Virginia will become the State of West Virginia on June 20, 1863.
Skirmish at Paterson, MO.

1864: Union garrison of Plymouth, NC surrenders.

1865: Union forces capture Macon, GA.
Arkansas passed the 13th Amendment.

April 21

1861: All rail and telegraph connections at Baltimore are cut, isolating Washington, DC.

1862: Despite 4000 shells hitting Ft Jackson and Ft St Philip, LA, the commander of the ground assault on New Orleans, Union General Butler, may have to take those forts by using his troops.

1863: In an effort to confuse his opponents, Union Colonel Grierson detaches one of his regiments, under Colonel Edward Hatch, and sends then north.
Confederate General John Marmaduke launches a raid into Missouri.
Union Army of the Potomac prepares for an offensive against the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia near Fredericksburg, VA.

1864: Union General Banks orders his forces withdrawn from Grand Ecore, LA.
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes about a rainstorm that wrecks most of the shanties in Andersonville Prison.

1865: President Lincoln’s funeral train leaves Washington, DC on a route that will reach Springfield, IL in May 3.
Confederate Colonel Mosby disbands his Partisan Rangers rather than surrender.

April 22

1861: CS President Davis hopes that Virginia can support the pro-Confederates in Baltimore, MD, possibly bringing Maryland into the Confederacy.
Union troops garrison Cairo, IL, a strategic town at the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.
Federal arsenal in Fayetteville, AR is seized by Confederates.

1862: Union Flag Officer Farragut decides to run his ships past Ft Jackson and Ft St Philip, LA upon learning that the obstacles across the Mississippi River have been breached.
Private Robert Sneeden, mapmaker for III Corps, writes about seeing the Prince de Joinville and the duc de Chartres, French observers on Union General McClellan's staff. He also notes that newspaper reports include accurate maps. Perhaps they think that New York papers do not make it South.

1863: CS President Davis orders General Pemberton, commander of Vicksburg, MS defenses, to attack the Union flotilla with fire rafts.
18 Union ships run the Vicksburg, MS defenses with a loss of one transport and six barges.

1864: CS President Davis expresses the opinion that any African-American soldiers that are captures and turned out to be escaped slaves should be returned to their owners.
Skirmishes at Cotton Plant and Jacksonport, AR.

1865: John Wilkes Booth and one fellow conspirator in the Lincoln assassination cross the Potomac River and flee south.
Skirmishing around Macon, GA.

April 23

1861: Union General Butler offers the use of his troops in restoring order in Baltimore, MD.
Confederate General Lee formally assumes command of Virginia armed forces.

1862: Skirmish at Grass Lick, Western Virginia.
Union Admiral Farragut prepares to run past the forts guarding the approaches to New Orleans, LA.

1863: Union General Banks’ forces engage Confederates under General Hamilton Bee at Monett’s Ferry, LA. The Confederates are driven off.

1864: Federal Troops are hit at Camden, Monett’s Ferry, and Swan Lake, AR

1865: Federal cavalry continue to skirmish against Confederate holdouts.

April 24

1861: Threat to Washington, DC from the south is perceived.

1862: Union Admiral David Farragut sends his fleet past Forts Jackson and St Philip, driving off a Confederate flotilla that was guarding New Orleans, LA.

1863: Union Colonel Grierson succeeds in wrecking the main rail supply line into Vicksburg, MS.
Union General Michael Corcoran attacks Confederate General George Pickett’s forces near Fredericksburg, VA and is repulsed.
Confederate Congress levies taxes on agricultural goods as well as profits from the sale of goods and services.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle reaches San Antonio, TX and gets a room in the Menger Hotel, one block from the Alamo.

1864: Skirmishes at Decatur, AL, Pineville and Ringgold, GA, and Camden AR.
CS War Department clerk John B. Jones writes about buying a black coat at an auction for $12. A new coat costs $100.

1865: Union General Sherman is ordered to either demand unconditional surrender from Confederate General Johnston or resume the offensive. Assassins Booth and Herold reach Port Conway, VA.
US President Lincoln’s body lies in state in New York City.

April 25

1861: A Unionist Captain named Stokes leads a raid on the Arsenal at St Louis, MO, seizing 10,000 muskets before local Confederate supporters could get them.
7th New York regiment, first of the reinforcements for Washington, DC arrives.
The Prairie du Chien (WI), Courier, reports on a town meeting in which there is support for the Union.

1862: New Orleans, LA surrenders to Union forces.
Confederate Ft Macon, NC falls to Federal troops.

1863: Confederate General Marmaduke reaches the Union garrison at Cape Girardeau, MO.
Union General Grant’s troops engage the Vicksburg, MS garrison at Hard Times Landing.

1864: Union General Steele, short of supplies, suffers a setback when a supply train is captured by Confederates at Mark’s Mills, AR.

1865: Union General Sherman delivers the message he received yesterday to Confederate General Joe Johnston. Johnston wires CS President Davis of the developments, including the intention to surrender. Davis and the remnants of the Cabinet leave Charlotte, NC with the intention to reach General Taylor’s army, still in the field.
Union cavalry learn that the assassins of US President Lincoln are hiding in a farm near the Rappahannock River, VA.

April 26

1861: Confederate General Joseph Johnston is assigned command of Virginia forces in the Richmond area.
Major Thomas Jackson, an instructor at the Virginia Military Institute, is promoted to Colonel and assigned to command forces at Harpers Ferry.
The government of Georgia cancels all debts owed to northern interests.
Communications are restored between Washington, DC and the North.

1862: Forts Jackson and St Philip surrender to Union forces.
Union Army of the Potomac advances on Yorktown, VA.
Skirmishes at Turnback Creek and Neosho, MO.

1863: Confederate General Marmaduke attacks Cape Girardeau, MO but is driven back.
Union Colonel Hatch has succeeded in drawing Confederates away from Union General Grierson’s forces and heads back to Lagrange, TN.
Union General Hooker begins his long awaited offensive against Confederate General Lee by marching on Kelly’s Ford, VA. Rain hampers the movement.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle takes some time off in San Antonio, TX and sees some of the sights, including Mission San Jose and Mission San Juan.

1864: Union General Grant orders the garrison at Washington, NC abandoned.
Union General Steel orders a retreat from Camden, AR, sealing Confederate victory in the Red River Campaign.
Union Sergeant John Ransom writes that he had escaped Camp Sumter (Andersonville, GA) on April 21, but was recaptured after only traveling three miles. Was put in a chain gang for two days afterwards.

1865: Confederate General Johnston agrees to the same surrender terms that General Lee had agreed to. This takes a second major Confederate army out of the war.
John Wilkes Booth, the assassin of Abraham Lincoln, is trapped with David Harold, an accomplice, in a barn near Bowling Green, VA. Harold surrenders but Booth is killed. There are rumors going about that CS President Davis himself ordered Lincoln killed. The truth is that the conspirators acted alone, albeit with some financial assistance from the Confederate Secret Service.
The Confederate Cabinet meets in Charlotte, NC and agrees to flee west of the Mississippi River.

April 27

1861: Federal naval blockade is extended to include the Virginia coastline.
US President Lincoln suspends civilian laws in the Baltimore, MD area on order to let the military restore order.
Richmond, VA is offered as a permanent capital for the Confederacy.
J.B. Jones writes on an interview with CS President Davis in which the belief is expressed that the war would not take very long.

1862: Skirmish as Horton’s Mills, NC.
Confederate forts to the north of New Orleans, LA surrender.

1863: Union General Grierson’s forces damage another railroad, this time the railroad line north of Jackson, MS.
Union General Joseph Hooker sends three corps across the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers, near Fredericksburg, VA.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle leaves San Antonio and is headed for Alleyton (near Houston, TX).

1864: Union General Grant begins to issue orders for a spring offensive.
CS President Davis dispatches Jacob Thompson to Canada in order to send out peace feelers to supporters in the North.

1865: In what is considered the worst transportation accident in US history, the steamboat Sultana, carrying former Union prisoners of war, explodes on the Mississippi River north of Memphis, TN, killing 1450.
CS President Davis continues to flee as his party leaves Charlotte, NC.

April 28

1861: Unrest in Baltimore, MD continues.

1862: Union General Butler arrives in New Orleans, LA as the Union flag is hoisted above the Customs House, City Hall, and the Mint.
Union General Halleck awaits a Confederate attack at Corinth, MS.
At Nassau, British Bahamas, the vessel Oreto arrives and is outfitted and rechristened CSS Florida.

1863: Road repairs need to be accomplished in order to allow Union General Hooker’s forces to keep going after the rains in Virginia subsided.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle continues his journey to Alleyton, stopping at Sequin and Gonzales, TX.

1864: Another artillery assault on Ft Sumter, SC begins.

1865: US President Lincoln’s funeral train reaches Cleveland, OH.
Union General Sherman begins to redeploy his army towards Washington, DC.

April 29

1861: Maryland votes not to secede.
CS President Davis makes the case for secession in a speech to the Second Provisional Congress of the Confederacy.

1862: Minor action at Bridgeport, AL ends in favor of the Union.
100,000 Union troops advance on Corinth, MS.

1863: Confederate General Lee orders General Longstreet to abandon Suffolk, VA and join him.
Confederate General Lee learns that Federal forces are trying to flank him near an area known as the Wilderness, VA.
Union Admiral Porter’s ironclads engage Confederate forts at Grand Gulf, MS. After sundown, General Grant begins moving his troops across the Mississippi River.
Union General Francis Blair begins moving troops up the Yazoo River in order to distract the Confederates.
Lt Col Arthur Freemantle reaches Alleyton, TX where he will catch a train.

1864: Union General Steele continues the retreat from Camden, AR and begins to cross the Saline River at Jenkins Ferry. The crossing is hampered by the swollen river.
Skirmish at Grand Ecore, LA.

1865: With the news of surrendering Confederate armies circulating, many soldiers are now demanding immediate demobilization.

April 30

1861: Federal forces abandon forts in the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), allowing the region to fall under Confederate control.
The New York Herald prints an article about women drilling as soldiers in Mississippi. This and other such articles stoke the opinion that the rebellion would be quashed quickly.

1862: The unofficial Southern anthem “Dixie” is published.
Confederate General Ewell’s division reaches the Shenandoah Valley, VA to reinforce General Jackson’s army.
Skirmishes at Cumberland Mountain and Monterey, TN.

1863: Union General Grant’s troops skirmish with Confederates at Bruinsburg, MS.
Union General Blair engages Confederates at Drumgould’s Bluff, MS.
Union General Hooker has the Army of the Potomac concentrated at Chancellorsville, VA.
Lt Col Arthur Fremantle’s train reaches Houston, TX and he checks into the Fannin House Hotel.

1864: CS President Davis’ son Joe is killed in a fall at the Confederate White House.
Union forces under Colonel Albert Streight engage Confederate forces under General Forrest in a series of battles beginning at Sand Mountain, AL and ending with the surrender of the Union force at Rome, GA on May 3.
The level of the Red River has dropped to the point that Union General Banks’ flotilla is stranded and in danger of capture. Engineers devise a series of dams that will eventually free the flotilla by May 13.

1865: Union General Edward Canby and Confederate General Richard Taylor discuss the surrender of Confederate forces in Alabama and Mississippi.


US Presidential advisor Francis P Blair Sr., 1791
James Buchanan, 15th president of the United States, 1791
Pennsylvania Senator Thaddeus Stevens, 1792
Orator Edward Everett, who preceded Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, 1794
Union Naval Captain Charles Wilkes, commander of USS San Jacinto, 1798
Union Nurse Dorothea Dix, 1802
Union Naval Captain Theodorus Bailey, 1805
Missouri Governor Claiborne Jackson, 1806
Confederate General Leonidas Polk, 1806
French Emperor Napoleon III, 1808
Union General Daniel Ullmann, 1810
US Senator Stephen Douglas, 1813
Confederate General Henry Benning, 1814
Confederate General Edward Johnson, 1816
Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin, 1817
UK Minister (Ambassador) to the US Earl Richard Lyons, 1817
Confederate Naval Lieutenant Catsby ap Roger Jones, 1821
Union General Ulysses S. Grant (Hiram Ulysses Grant) and 18th President of the United States, 1822
Confederate General Simon Bolivar Buckner, 1823
Confederate General Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb, 1823
Confederate General Alfred Colquitt, 1824
Union General Joseph Bailey, whose plan saved the Red River Expedition from disaster, 1825
Confederate Colonel Chatham Wheat, 1826
Union General John Gibbon, 1827
Union General Lew Wallace, 1827
Union General Grenville Dodge, 1831
Confederate General Edward Walthall, 1831
Union General James Ledlie, who hid in a shelter and got drunk while his troops died at The Crater (Petersburg, VA), 1832
Union General David Gregg, 1833
Union General John Corse, 1835
Union Colonel Elmer Ellsworth, “first martyr of the Civil War,” 1837
Robert Smalls, only African-American to command a US Navy vessel in the Civil War, 1839
Lewis Powell, Lincoln assassination conspirator, 1844
John Harrison Surratt Jr., Lincoln assassination conspirator, 1844

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