Tuesday, August 22, 2006
Infantry Arms, Equipment, Rations, and Pay
(Arranged by Type, Caliber, Range, Weight, and Rounds per Minute)
1855 Enfield Carbine (UK) .577 350 yards 8.0 pounds 3
Commonly use by CS Cavalry
1857 Enfield Rifle (UK) .577 450 yards 9.2 pounds 3
Standard rifle for both sides
US 1835 Musket .69 150 yards 11.0 pounds 3
Last US issued flintlock
US 1842 Musket .69 150 yards 11.0 pounds 3
This is the US 1835 after conversion to percussion
US 1855 Rifle .58 400 yards 10.12 pounds 3
The "Harper's Ferry" rifle. First US rifle to use the Minie round
US 1961 Rifle .58 450 yards 9.75 pounds 3
The "Springfield" rifle
Sharps 1848 Carbine (US) .52 350 yards 7.0 pounds 9
Mostly used by US Cavalry
Sharps 1848 Rifle (US) .52 450 yards 8.0 pounds 9
Mostly used by US Sharpshooters
Spencer 1860 Carbine (US) .52 450 Yards 8.3 Pounds 20
Firstly regularly issued repeating weapon in the US
Loading and firing
1. Place the rifle on the ground between your feet, stock down. You should be looking at the muzzle. Hold the rifle with your left hand.
2. With your right hand, reach into your cartridge pouch and get one cartridge. Locate the "tail" at one end. Bite the "tail" and pull the cartridge in order to open it.
3. Pour the powder into the barrel. Tap the rifle gently on the ground as that is being done. Next, drop the bullet into the barrel with the paper, which serves as wadding.
4. Pull out the rammer from its slot between the barrel. Turn the rammer around and tamp the round as far as it can go. Then replace the rammer in the slot. (Don't lose the rammer or you will have only one shot. Afterwards it's a club.)
5. Bring the rifle level. Pull the hammer back one click (half-cock) Reach into the cap pouch and bring out a percussion cap. Place the cap on the nipple.
6. Pull the hammer back one more click (full-cock). Place stock of rifle on your shoulder. Line up your sights on the target. (It's a good idea to aim low.)
7. Pull the trigger when ready or on the command of "fire." (When the trigger is pulled, the hammer comes down onto the cap, crushing it and causing a spark. The spark travels through a touch hole into the barrel. This ignites the powder, causing a small explosion that pushes the bullet out the barrel.)
8. When possible, swab the barrel between shots in order to kill any sparks. This will prevent premature firing while loading.
Henry Rifle: .52 rimfire (modern) cartridges in a tube magazine and loaded by lever action. This is the rifle that was described by Confederates as "that d***ed rifle that you can load on Sunday and shoot all week long."
Colt Model 1860 Army Revolver: six .44 cartridges in a cylinder.
Colt Model 1861 Navy Revolver: six .36 cartridges in a cylinder.
Remington New Model Revolvers: both in .36 and .44. These were an improvement over the Colts and they were made cheaper.
Lorenz Rifle Model 1854 (Austria): Third most used rifle after the Springfield and Enfield. Available in .54 and .58 caliber.
1854 Lefaucheux Revolver (France): Used a brass cartridge that included a pin that pointed up when the cartridge was to be fired. The hammer fell on the pin and ignited the powder in the cartridge.
Kerr Revolver (UK): This .44 caliber revolver was widely used in the CS Army and Navy.
LeMatt Revolver (France, Belgium, UK but patented in New Orleans, LA): nine .42 cartridges in a cylinder and one .63 buckshot cartridge. A tab in the hammer allowed the buckshot to be fired. This was the chosen sidearm of Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart.
US Model 1860 Cutlass (Navy)
US Model 1840 Saber (Cavalry)
US Model 1860 Saber (Cavalry)
US Model 1850 Foot Officer's Sword (Infantry)
US Model 1850 Staff and Field Officer's Sword (Infantry)
US Model 1860 Staff and field Officer's Sword (Infantry)
CS Edged Weapons were either captured or copied from US weapons.
English Pattern 1853 Troopers Saber (Cavalry)
Thomas, Griswold of New Orleans made swords and sabers as good as their US counterparts.
CS Navy edged weapons copied the US types
Uniforms and Equipment
A uniform consisted of:
1 Cap cover (for when it rains)
2 Coats (usually Sack Coats)
3 Pairs of Trousers
1 Blouse (a longer version of the Sack Coat)
3 Pairs of Drawers (underwear)
2 Pairs of Shoes
3 pairs of Stockings (socks)
1 Great Coat (perfect for winter)
1 Woolen Blanket
1 Rubber Blanket
Equipment consisted of:
1 Belt with Buckle
1 Baldric (Shoulder Strap)
1 Cartridge Box with Strap
1 Cap Box
1 Bayonet Scabbard with Bayonet
1 Haversack for rations and extra rounds
1 Knapsack for carrying other equipment and personal items.
Both Woolen and Rubber blankets rolled together and tied to the top.
Extra Uniform items
Mess kit with Fork and Spoon
Tin Mug for coffee
"Housewife" with needles, thread, and buttons for making repairs
Personal items like combs, toothbrushes, razors, mirror and other
items likely purchased from a sutler
16 ounces of "Hard Bread" (Hardtack)
22 ounces of "Soft Bread" (Regular)
20 ounces of salted meat (usually salt pork)
12 ounces of bacon
10 ounces of dried beans or peas
2.6 ounces of rice or hominy
5.2 ounces of potatoes (when available)
1.3 gills of vinegar
1.6 ounces of green (unroasted) coffee
1.3 ounces of roasted coffee
.25 ounces of tea
2.4 ounces of sugar
1.3 gills of molasses
0.3 ounces of salt
0.04 ounces of pepper
0.2 ounces of candles (actually a small candle)
0.6 ounces of soap
CS Rations usually consisted to corn meal or flour instead of bread. Bacon was the meat of choice in the CS Army
Soldiers could supplement their fare with canned peaches, canned milk, oysters, and candy from the sutler, usually at inflated prices.
Pay Scale (in national currency):
Private: US: $13.00 CS: $11.00
Corporal: US: $13.00 CS: $13.00
Sergeant: US: $17.00 CS: $17.00
1st Sergeant: US: $20.00 CS: $20.00
Quartermaster Sergeant: US: $21.00 CS: $21.00
Sergeant Major: US: $21.00 CS: $21.00
2nd Lieutenant: US: $105.50 CS: $ 80.00
1st Lieutenant: US: $105.50 CS: $90.00
Captain: US: $115.50 CS: $130.00
Major: US: $169.00 CS: $150.00
Lieutenant Colonel: US: $181.00 CS:$170.00
Colonel: US: $212.00 CS:$ 195.00
Brigadier General: US: $315.00 CS: $301.00
Major General: US: $457.00 CS: $301.00
Lieutenant General: US: (U. S. Grant) $758.00 CS: $301.00
General: US: no one held that rank until 1866. CS: $301.00
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